b' Pay and Incentives The federal government pays on a set scale. Broadly speaking, the civilian workforce parallels the military pay scale, with top salaries equating to the general officer range. There are modest adjustments to pay within limits, but promotions are basically the only way to significantly increase your salary. Federal salaries are also subject to congressional appropriations, but the individual budgets for each of the agencies in the IC are not lumped together. This can lead to pay freezes or, in extreme cases, furloughs or layoffs as each appropriations bill is considered. Government employees can be the target of congressional attempts to reduce big budgets. Private industry has the flexibility to pay what it feels necessary to attract people with the skill sets the company requires for maximum profits. The federal government is typically more generous with annual leave, administrative leave, and medical leave than is private industry. You accrue additional hours of leave with each year of longevity in government service and you can carry over unused balances to a greater extent than permitted in much of private industry. Private industry often pays bonuses for superior performance or as part of profit-sharing schemes. Merit pay bonuses are available in government, but as with the pay scales, they are bounded. The federal government recognizes superior performance with time-off awards, certificates of achievement, much as the military recognizes superior achievement with medals. 17'