AFIO Weekly Intelligence Notes #28-07 dated 23 July 2007

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25-27 October 2007 - McLean, VA - AFIO National Intelligence Symposium



SSCI Warns Against Clearances for Ex-Convicts

Intelligence Watchdog Panel Reported No Violations for Five Years

South Korean Opposition Party Demands Sacking Intelligence Chief

Former Indian General Leaks "Official Secrets" in Book

Poland Intelligence Station Exposed in Belarus

Laurence Olivier Was a War Spy

Prosecutor Says German Firms Smuggled Nuclear Material to Iran

Belarusian President Fires KGB Chief and First Deputy in Shake-Up of Security Services

Rep. Silvestre Reyes Visits CIA, Addresses Employees

Former Philippine Intelligence Officer Gets Prison Time for Security Breach

Nuclear Lab Employee Arrested for Allegedly Attempting to Sell Secrets

Ex-FBI Analyst Gets Ten Years in Spy Plot

South Korean Man Accused of Lying About Spy Activities

Intelligence Training Center to be Dedicated to Fallen Soldier


Briton Jailed Over Terrorism-related Documents

Key Judgments from the July 2007 National Intelligence Estimate [NIE]: The Terrorist Threat to the US Homeland


George Washington: America's First Military Intelligence Director


Book Previews

Henry Kissinger and the American Century, by Jeremi Suri

Thunder Below! by Admiral Eugene B. Fluckey


Thomas A. Parrott, CIA Official

Rene Sanford Peyton, CIA Analyst

Gordon T. Shahin Sr., CIA Management Professor

Retired Gen. Wayne Downing Dies at 67


Coming Events

Current Calendar Next Two Months ONLY:

24 July 2007 - Crystal City, VA - PLA Naval Attach� to give luncheon presentation

24 July 2007 - Washington, DC - Scott Carmichael to speak at the International Spy Museum Program

4 August 2007 - Melbourne, FL - AFIO Florida Satellite Chapter meets at the Indian River Colony Club

13-14 August 2007 - El Paso, TX - "Securing and Managing Our Nation's Borders" is the theme of the Fourth Annual Border Security Conference at the University of Texas at El Paso

25 August 2007 - Seattle, WA - AFIO Pacific Northwest Chapter Meeting

27 - 29 August 2007 - New Orleans, LA - SYNERGY '07 - Conference and Expo - Advancing an Integrated Defense Intelligence Enterprise

6 September 2007 - Front Royal, VA - Naval Intelligence Professional's Golf Fund-Raiser

9-14 September 2007 - Oxford, United Kingdom - Christ Church Conflict Conference 2007 "The Nature of War"

20 September 2007 - Colorado Springs, CO - AFIO Rocky Mountain Chapter holds luncheon

20 September 2007 - Tysons Corner, VA - OSS Society hosts William J. Donovan Award Dinner, Honors Gen Jack Singlaub

26 - 27 September 2007 - The Hague, Netherlands - Netherlands Intelligence Studies Association (NISA) CONFERENCE 2008

28 September 2007 - Tysons Corner, VA - AFIO National Summer Luncheon

25-27 October 2007 - McLean, VA - AFIO National Intelligence Symposium

For Additional Events two+ months or more....view our online Calendar of Events


SSCI Warns Against Clearances for Ex-Convicts. The Senate Select Committee on Intelligence (SSCI) endorsed a statutory prohibition that prevents the Department of Defense from granting security clearances to former convicts who have served a year or more in jail, individuals who are mentally incompetent, are drug addicts, or have been dishonorably discharged from the military. The Pentagon had requested a repeal of that provision, first enacted in 2000, and the request was approved by the Senate Armed Services Committee.

Although the Committee said it understood that the DoD would like more flexibility to grant clearances to otherwise qualified individuals who are currently barred from receiving or renewing their security clearances, the Committee expressed concern that a "blanket repeal of section 986 could lead to unintended compromises or mishandling of classified information. Further, the Committee believes that the waiver authority that is currently provided in section 986 is sufficient to give DoD the flexibility and discretion it needs in handling cases involving convictions or dishonorable discharges."

Committee Chairman Rockefeller and Senators Wyden and Feingold issued dissenting views - favoring the Pentagon request - saying they had "no reason to question the adequacy of the security clearance process established under presidential order, nor to question the joint assessment of DoD and the Armed Services Committee that national security can be protected without this one DoD-specific statute." [SecrecyNews/11July2007]

Intelligence Watchdog Panel Reported No Violations for Five Years. An independent oversight board created to identify intelligence abuses after the CIA scandals of the 1970s did not send any reports to the attorney general of legal violations during the first 5 1/2 years of the Bush administration's counterterrorism effort, the Justice Department has told Congress. The President's Intelligence Oversight Board - the principal civilian watchdog of the intelligence community - is obligated under a 26-year-old executive order to tell the attorney general and the president about any intelligence activities it believes "may be unlawful." The board was vacant for the first two years of the Bush administration.

Through five previous administrations, members of the board - all civilians not employed by the government - have been privy to some of America's most secret intelligence operations and have served as a private watchdog against unpublicized abuses. The subjects of their investigations and the resulting reports are nearly all classified. The Bush administration first appointed board members in 2003. Since then, the CIA and the National Security Agency have been caught up in controversy over interrogation tactics at secret prisons, the transfer of prisoners to countries that use torture, and domestic wiretapping not reviewed by federal courts.

Until recently, the board had not told the attorney general about any wrongdoing. "The Attorney General has no record of receiving reports from the IOB regarding intelligence activities alleged to be potentially unlawful or contrary to Executive Order or Presidential directive," the Justice Department told the House Judiciary Committee in a May 9 letter.

White House officials said the board began forwarding reports of problems shortly thereafter. The officials declined to discuss the board's interactions with President Bush and said its members could not be interviewed for this report.

The board now in place is led by former Bush economic adviser Stephen Friedman. It includes Don Evans, a friend of the president and a former commerce secretary; former Adm. David Jeremiah; and lawyer Arthur B. Culvahouse. [Solomon/WashingtonPost/15July2007]

South Korean Opposition Party Demands Sacking Intelligence Chief. South Korea's main opposition party on Sunday demanded an apology from President Roh Moo-hyun over the accessing of real estate records of a leading presidential contender by the national intelligence agency. The Grand National Party (GNP) also called upon Roh to sack Kim Man-bok, chief of the National Intelligence Service (NIS), claiming the NIS operated a task force to monitor the political activities of Lee Myung-bak, the former Seoul mayor, over the past three years. Rep. Ahn Sang-soo of the GNP urged the NIS chief to step down of his own accord and called upon the prosecution to punish those involved to prevent illegal political orchestration and surveillance.

The NIS defended its actions, saying one of its workers reviewed the transaction records of Lee and his relatives on a tip-off that the presidential bidder hid a large amount of property under borrowed or false names. Lee, the top contender in all opinion polls, is running to become the presidential candidate of the GNP. But Kim Jae-joung, Lee's brother-in-law, is at the center of the prosecution's investigation into allegations that Lee improperly acquired wealth through real estate speculation. [Yonhapnews/15July2007]

Former Indian General Leaks "Official Secrets" in Book. The government of India is trying to ban Major General V N Singh's book, India's External Intelligence, under the Official Secrets Act. The book discusses the leadership crisis in the Research and Analysis wing, the lack of accountability in the organization, and the political mishandling of RAW's functions. Any action the government takes is already too late, because the book is already available in book stores. There are other books about RAW in the pipeline too, including one by RAW's former additional secretary B Raman. [Jha/Ibnlive/16July2007]

Poland Intelligence Station Exposed in Belarus. The deputy chairman of the Belarussian State Security Committee, Viktor Vegera, announced that the committee had discovered a group of spies acting on behalf of the Polish military intelligence service. The group consisted of four Belarussian citizens and one Russian citizen. According to Mr. Vegera, the investigators "proved completely the espionage criminal activities" of the detainees. The group of spies collected strategic information about a missile defense system of the Belarus-Russia Union State, and the spies were particularly interested in anti-aircraft missile systems S-300. Former officer of the Belarussian Airborne Troops Russkin headed the group of spies. The defendants face terms in prison from seven to 15 years. [Itar-Tass/17July2007]

Laurence Olivier Was a War Spy. According to his recent biography, actor Laurence Olivier was a British spy during World War II. The Hollywood star was recruited on the instructions of PM Winston Churchill to win support from America before it entered the conflict. Lord Larry author Michael Munn said Olivier risked jail - as foreign agents were not tolerated in the US then. Olivier, who died in 1989 at age 82, returned to Britain in 1941 and joined the Fleet Air Arm. [TheSun/16July2007]

Prosecutor Says German Firms Smuggled Nuclear Material to Iran. German prosecutors said they are investigating some 50 companies suspected of smuggling technology to Iran's Bushehr nuclear power plant via Russia. Berlin-based company Vero is suspected of having smuggled material to build the nuclear reactor through Poland to Moscow, from where it was taken to Iran, said Christoph Lange from the prosecutor's office in Potsdam near Berlin. He said Vero appeared to have been buying up nuclear technology in Germany and elsewhere in Europe since 2000 at the orders of Russia, which is constructing Iran's first nuclear power plant in the town of Bushehr.

Lange said prosecutors have so far only traced material worth about five million euros (6.8 million dollars), but that this appeared to be the tip of the iceberg. Up to 150 million euros' worth of material may have left Germany for Iran, he estimates. The companies being probed have claimed that the material was destined for Russia but at least a dozen of them must have known that Iran was the final destination, Lange said.

Only one of the companies under investigation is seated in the former communist East Germany. It is believed to have exported parts for a crane meant to be used in the Bushehr reactor to Russia in 2001 and 2002. In 2004, a company employee was arrested in the east German state of Saxony-Anhalt on suspicion of smuggling technology destined for Iran to Russia. [Forbes/12July2007]

Belarusian President Fires KGB Chief and First Deputy in Shake-Up of Security Services. Belarusian President Alexander Lukashenko dismissed the head of the country's KGB and his first deputy Tuesday. KGB Chairman Stepan Sukhorenko and First Deputy Head Vasily Dementey were transferred to other jobs, Lukashenko's office said. Their new positions were not announced. Sukhorenko was replaced by the head of the presidential security service, Yuriy Zhadobin, who has been told to work on strengthening the KGB staff, the president's office said.

The dismissals follow the arrest in June on bribery charges of two KGB officers, one of them retired. The two men were believed to be close to Sukhorenko. [PRInside/16July2007]

Rep. Silvestre Reyes Visits CIA, Addresses Employees. Rep. Silvestre Reyes, chairman of the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence (HPSCI), spoke to CIA employees about the importance of leadership and diversity in the Intelligence Community.

In welcoming remarks, CIA Director Michael V. Hayden noted that Chairman Reyes is a strong, thoughtful advocate for expanding diversity in the Intelligence Community workforce, improving language capabilities, strengthening human intelligence collection and all-source analysis, and broadening collaboration in the IC. The same priorities are reflected in CIA's Strategic Intent, Director Hayden said.

Chairman Reyes told the standing-room-only crowd in the Agency Auditorium, "We're living in very dangerous times, and therefore, we're vitally dependent on your work and your ability to give us the kind of intelligence that we can act upon."

On diversity, Chairman Reyes said the Intelligence Community must do an even better job of recruiting and retaining employees with a wide variety of backgrounds. "If we're going to understand our enemies, we have to understand where they're coming from, we have to understand their culture, we have to understand their customs, and we certainly have to understand them and their languages," he said. "That has been one of our greatest challenges."

A member of the Intelligence Committee since 2001, Chairman Reyes has visited Agency facilities and spoken with employees on many occasions. His speech was part of CIA's Leadership Speakers Forum, which is run by the Office of Diversity Plans and Programs. [Newsblaze/16July2007]

Former Philippine Intelligence Officer Gets Prison Time for Security Breach. Former Philippine National Police officer Michael Ray Aquino was sentenced Tuesday to six years and four months in prison for his role in a plot in which he obtained secret U.S. documents in an effort to undermine the Philippine government. Aquino, 41, pleaded guilty in July 2006 in a deal that spared him a life term if convicted of espionage. He admitted possessing secret documents containing information on the United States' confidential intelligence sources and methods, as well as information on terrorist threats to U.S. military personnel in the Philippines.

Federal prosecutors sought the maximum 10-year term for Aquino. They maintained that the "serious disruption" he caused to the American government outweighed any benefit he should receive for pleading guilty in the conspiracy. Prosecutors also said Aquino posed a "danger to the national security, including the foreign relations of the United States" by attempting to destabilize and overthrow Philippine President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo.

Defense lawyer Mark A. Berman argued that Aquino should face less than four years in prison, contending that the documents were "likely to cause little or no harm. ... Much of the information in the documents was publicly available in the Philippines."

Aquino was once a senior officer under Lacson in the Philippines National Police. He fled to the United States to escape murder charges in 2001 and lived with his wife and son in New York. He likely will be deported after he serves his prison sentence. [Gold/AP/17July2007]

Nuclear Lab Employee Arrested for Allegedly Attempting to Sell Secrets. A contract worker at the Oak Ridge Reservation nuclear research facility has been arrested and charged with trying to sell highly classified information about how to enrich uranium. According to Federal sources, Roy Lynn Oakley, 67, an employee of contract firm Bechtel Jacobs, thought he was selling the information to a foreign agent, but was actually selling it to a U.S. undercover agent.

Local media reports said Oakley was an escort who brought visitors around East Tennessee Technology Park, on the other side of the Oak Ridge complex's nuclear weapons research facilities. Sources emphasize that the public was never in danger, but acknowledge that the case represents a major breach and raises serious questions about the security at some of the nation's most sensitive nuclear installations. [Thomas,Date,Katersky,Cook/ABC/19July2007]

Ex-FBI Analyst Gets Ten Years in Spy Plot. A former FBI intelligence analyst who worked under two vice presidents was sentenced yesterday to 10 years in prison for passing secret US documents in an effort to topple the Philippine government.

Leandro Aragoncillo addressed the court before the sentence and apologized, asserting that he acted to help bring Filipino people out of poverty. "I never intended to cause harm or injury to the United States, its government, or its people," he said. Prosecutors and US District Judge William H. Walls agreed that Aragoncillo did not mean to hurt the nation, but said, nevertheless, that his "nefarious" actions caused harm.

Aragoncillo, 48, had a top-secret security clearance and worked as a military aide to former vice president Al Gore and Vice President Dick Cheney before joining the FBI as a civilian employee at Fort Monmouth. He pleaded guilty to four charges in May 2006.

The most serious charge, conspiracy to transmit national defense information, can carry the death penalty. But under his plea agreement, Aragoncillo faced 15 to 20 years in prison. Walls granted a motion by federal prosecutors, citing Aragoncillo's cooperation following his arrest, to go below that range.

Assistant US Attorney Karl H. Buch said Aragoncillo met 15 times with investigators attempting to assess the damage from the release of more than 700 classified documents, including national defense materials that offered sources and methods.

One source was exposed, but was not injured, Buch said. "He did his best to tell us what he knew," Buch told the judge. However, "He betrayed two vice presidents, Vice President Gore, and Vice President Cheney, and he betrayed the FBI, and that is really unprecedented," Buch added.

Prosecutors said Aragoncillo, who entered the vice president's office in 1999, was recruited in 2000 by opposition forces and began working with Michael Ray Aquino, a former Philippine National Police officer, in early 2005. Aragoncillo admitted passing information to Aquino and opposition politicians in the Philippines who wanted to oust the Philippine president, Gloria Macapagal Arroyo. Recipients included former president Joseph Estrada, who was ousted six years ago; Panfilo Lacson, an opposition senator; and former House speaker Arnulfo Fuentebella, according to court documents. [Gold/AP/19July2007]

South Korean Man Accused of Lying About Spy Activities. A South Korean man has been arrested and charged with repeatedly lying about his spying activities in the United States on behalf of his government during the last two years. Park Il Woo, also known as Steve Park, was arrested on 18 July and charged in U.S. District Court in Manhattan with lying to the FBI about his role as a South Korean agent spying on North Korea. Park, 58, was accused in court papers of obtaining information from the North Korean government and providing it to South Korea in return for unspecified payments.

Park, a South Korean citizen, has lived as a legal resident in the United States for the past 20 years. United States law requires anyone acting as agents of foreign governments to register with the attorney general and disclose the nature of the activity. According to court papers, Park met with the FBI three times between 2005 and 2007, each time lying about his contacts with or knowledge of certain South Korean officials. On March 20, 2007, FBI agents showed Park photographs of South Korean officials working in Manhattan and Park denied knowing two of them, court papers said. After the meeting, Park immediately drove to a restaurant in New Jersey where he met with one of the South Korean officials he claimed not to know, the papers said. [Neumeister/AP/19July2007]

Intelligence Training Center to be Dedicated to Fallen Soldier. The Navy and Marine Corps Intelligence Training Center will dedicate a new facility for the training of Counter Intelligence/Human Intelligence Marines and Sailors Friday. It will be dedicated in honor of Gunnery Sgt. Ronald Eric Baum, who was killed in Iraq in May of 2004. The goal of Baum Hall is to help meet a growing need for a greater number of specialists in this area in the Navy and Marine Corps.

Two of the courses to be featured at the facility will be the Marine Air/Ground Task Force Counterintelligence/Human Intelligence Basic Course and the Naval Ground Intelligence Course. Both are designed to increase the intelligence capabilities of those who take the courses to better meet ground commanders' needs. [13news/19July2007]


Briton Jailed Over Terrorism-related Documents. A Briton was sentenced to 3-1/2 years in jail on Tuesday for possessing terrorism-related documents that the judge described as "fundamentalist trash". Yassin Nassari, 28, was convicted while his Dutch wife Bouchra El-Hor walked free after the jury rejected evidence purporting to show she had urged him to become a "martyr" for Islam.

The charges against Nassari related to files on the hard drive of his computer, including plans for building a missile and extensive material on jihad, or holy war. "You have somehow been indoctrinated into (these) beliefs, some of which support the use of terrorism by others. I have no doubt you wished to be immersed in this sort of fundamentalist trash," Judge Gerald Gordon told him.

Gordon said there was no indication that anybody would have made "actual terrorist use" of the material. But the jury's verdict meant that anyone who downloaded such material, whatever their intentions, was at real risk of being convicted under Britain's terrorism laws, the judge said.

Nassari will be eligible for parole in around two months, as the time he has already served in prison since his arrest in May 2006 will count towards his sentence. He smiled and gave a thumbs-up sign as he was led away from the dock.

Britain faces what security officials describe as a strong and growing threat from radical Islamists, many of whom cite its role in invading and occupying Iraq as justification for attacks. Nassari was the 16th man convicted and jailed on terrorism-related charges in just over a month. Peter Clarke, Britain's top counter-terrorism policeman, said that Nassari had the "ideology, ability and determination" to find and download material of use to terrorists. While his intentions were unclear, Clarke said, "it is possible that his research could have ended up in the hands of individuals or groups willing to put it into practice." [reuters/17July2007]

Key Judgments from the July 2007 National Intelligence Estimate [NIE]: The Terrorist Threat to the US Homeland:

We judge the US Homeland will face a persistent and evolving terrorist threat over the next three years. The main threat comes from Islamic terrorist groups and cells, especially al-Qa'ida, driven by their undiminished intent to attack the Homeland and a continued effort by these terrorist groups to adapt and improve their capabilities.

We assess that greatly increased worldwide counterterrorism efforts over the past five years have constrained the ability of al-Qa'ida to attack the US Homeland again and have led terrorist groups to perceive the Homeland as a harder target to strike than on 9/11. These measures have helped disrupt known plots against the United States since 9/11.

We are concerned, however, that this level of international cooperation may wane as 9/11 becomes a more distant memory and perceptions of the threat diverge.

Al-Qa'ida is and will remain the most serious terrorist threat to the Homeland, as its central leadership continues to plan high-impact plots, while pushing others in extremist Sunni communities to mimic its efforts and to supplement its capabilities. We assess the group has protected or regenerated key elements of its Homeland attack capability, including: a safehaven in the Pakistan Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), operational lieutenants, and its top leadership. Although we have discovered only a handful of individuals in the United States with ties to al-Qa'ida senior leadership since 9/11, we judge that al-Qa'ida will intensify its efforts to put operatives here.

As a result, we judge that the United States currently is in a heightened threat environment.

We assess that al-Qa'ida will continue to enhance its capabilities to attack the Homeland through greater cooperation with regional terrorist groups. Of note, we assess that al-Qa'ida will probably seek to leverage the contacts and capabilities of al-Qa'ida in Iraq (AQI), its most visible and capable affiliate and the only one known to have expressed a desire to attack the Homeland. In addition, we assess that its association with AQI helps al-Qa'ida to energize the broader Sunni extremist community, raise resources, and to recruit and indoctrinate operatives, including for Homeland attacks.

We assess that al-Qa'ida's Homeland plotting is likely to continue to focus on prominent political, economic, and infrastructure targets with the goal of producing mass casualties, visually dramatic destruction, significant economic aftershocks, and/or fear among the US population. The group is proficient with conventional small arms and improvised explosive devices, and is innovative in creating new capabilities and overcoming security obstacles.

We assess that al-Qaida will continue to try to acquire and employ chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear material in attacks and would not hesitate to use them if it develops what it deems is sufficient capability.

We assess Lebanese Hizballah, which has conducted anti-US attacks outside the United States in the past, may be more likely to consider attacking the Homeland over the next three years if it perceives the United States as posing a direct threat to the group or Iran.

We assess that the spread of radical - especially Salafi - Internet sites, increasingly aggressive anti-US rhetoric and actions, and the growing number of radical, self-generating cells in Western countries indicate that the radical and violent segment of the West's Muslim population is expanding, including in the United States. The arrest and prosecution by US law enforcement of a small number of violent Islamic extremists inside the United States - who are becoming more connected ideologically, virtually, and/or in a physical sense to the global extremist movement - points to the possibility that others may become sufficiently radicalized that they will view the use of violence here as legitimate. We assess that this internal Muslim terrorist threat is not likely to be as severe as it is in Europe, however.

We assess that other, non-Muslim terrorist groups - often referred to as "single-issue" groups by the FBI - probably will conduct attacks over the next three years given their violent histories, but we assess this violence is likely to be on a small scale.

We assess that globalization trends and recent technological advances will continue to enable even small numbers of alienated people to find and connect with one another, justify and intensify their anger, and mobilize resources to attack - all without requiring a centralized terrorist organization, training camp, or leader.

The ability to detect broader and more diverse terrorist plotting in this environment will challenge current US defensive efforts and the tools we use to detect and disrupt plots. It will also require greater understanding of how suspect activities at the local level relate to strategic threat information and how best to identify indicators of terrorist activity in the midst of legitimate interactions. [DNI/July2007]


George Washington: America's First Military Intelligence Director. George Washington, who some call the First Director of Central Intelligence, was a key practitioner of military intelligence during the Revolutionary War. In fact, General Washington was more deeply involved in intelligence operations than any American general-in-chief until Dwight Eisenhower during World War II. His skills in intelligence helped secure key victories, hastened the end of hostilities, and significantly contributed to the United States' winning its independence from Great Britain.

Manager of Military Intelligence. George Washington was a skilled military intelligence manager. He recruited and debriefed Tory and Patriot sources, developed espionage networks, interrogated prisoners and travelers, cleverly used deception and propaganda, and practiced sound tradecraft. He recognized the need for multiple sources so reports could be crosschecked, and so the compromise of one asset would not cut off intelligence from an important area.

During the war, he spent more than 10 percent of his military funds on intelligence operations. Military setbacks around New York early in the war convinced Washington that he needed an elite detachment dedicated to tactical reconnaissance that reported directly to him.

Washington picked Thomas Knowlton to command the Army's first intelligence unit. One-hundred-and-thirty soldiers and 20 officers comprised the "Knowlton's Rangers." This unit was sent on secret missions too dangerous for regular troops. The date 1776 on the seal of the Army's intelligence service today refers to the formation of Knowlton's unit.

Washington's first venture at using an infiltration agent ended in failure when the ill-suited and poorly trained Nathan Hale was captured and executed. Washington was more successful in other ventures. For example, he received vital intelligence from stay-behind agents, such as Hercules Mulligan. Mulligan ran a clothing shop in New York frequented by British officers who often let secrets slip while in his store. Mulligan was the first to alert Washington to British plans to capture the American commander-in-chief and to a planned incursion into Pennsylvania.

Lt. Lewis J. Costigin was another source in New York. He stayed in the city after his release in a prisoner exchange in September 1778. For several months, he pretended to be on parole and roamed about, gathering intelligence on British commanders, troop deployments, shipping, and logistics; he smuggled the information out through underground Patriot communication networks.

Washington vs. General Sir Henry Clinton. The most elaborate and productive network that Washington oversaw was the Culper Ring in New York City and Long Island. In the summer of 1778, General Sir Henry Clinton occupied the city, while Washington's forces were scattered around New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. Washington needed intelligence on Clinton's forces and intentions and ordered Maj. Benjamin Tallmadge to establish an espionage net.

The Culper Ring eventually had about 20 members who either reported on British activities on Manhattan Island or conveyed the intelligence out of the city to Tallmadge's couriers in Connecticut, who then rode to Washington's encampment. Tallmadge's operatives practiced sophisticated tradecraft that included code names, cover stories, secret writing, encryption, and dead drops. For security reasons, Washington did not have Tallmadge tell him who was in the Culper Ring.

To offset British superiority in firepower and number of troops, Washington made frequent use of deception operations. He allowed fabricated documents to fall into the hands of enemy agents or be discussed in their presence; told couriers carrying bogus information to be captured by the British; and inserted forged documents in intercepted British pouches that were then sent on to their destinations. He had army procurement officers make false purchases of large quantities of supplies to convince the British that a sizeable Continental force was massing.

After learning from the Culper Ring that the British planned to attack a French expedition that had just landed in Newport, Rhode Island, Washington planted information with known British agents indicating that he intended to move against New York, and he staged a march toward the city. Those ploys persuaded Clinton to call back his troops headed for Rhode Island. A few years later, Washington used similar techniques to hide his movement toward the Chesapeake Bay, and eventual victory at Yorktown, by convincing the British initially that he was again moving on New York.

First in War, First in Peace. Contemporaries regarded George Washington as "first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen." He also was first in the early history of American intelligence. The image of Washington as spymaster contrasts vividly with textbook portrayals of him as "the Father of Our Country," but the two roles are historically connected.

Without General Washington's intelligence-aided victories on the battlefield, there would have been no independence, no United States, no Constitution, and no President Washington. And while it is hard to gauge the precise contribution that intelligence operations made to his victories, the Revolutionary War would have lasted longer, cost more lives, and caused more social and economic upheaval without all of the clandestine activities that were conducted under his direction. [StudentOperatedPress/14July2007]


Book Previews

Henry Kissinger and the American Century, by Jeremi Suri. What made Henry Kissinger the kind of diplomat he was? What experiences and influences shaped his worldview and provided the framework for his approach to international relations? Jeremi Suri offers a thought-provoking, interpretive study of one of the most influential and controversial political figures of the twentieth century.

Drawing on research in more than six countries in addition to extensive interviews with Kissinger and others, Suri analyzes the sources of Kissinger's ideas and power and explains why he pursued the policies he did. Kissinger's German-Jewish background, fears of democratic weakness, belief in the primacy of the relationship between the United States and Europe, and faith in the indispensable role America plays in the world shaped his career and his foreign policy. Suri shows how Kissinger's early years in Weimar and Nazi Germany, his experiences in the U.S. Army and at Harvard University, and his relationships with powerful patrons--including Nelson Rockefeller and Richard Nixon--shed new light on the policymaker.

Kissinger's career was a product of the global changes that made the American Century. He remains influential because his ideas are rooted so deeply in dominant assumptions about the world. In treating Kissinger fairly and critically as a historical figure, without polemical judgments, Suri provides critical context for this important figure. He illuminates the legacies of Kissinger's policies for the United States in the twenty-first century. [HarvardUniversityPress]

Thunder Below! by Admiral Eugene B. Fluckey. [Editors Comment: As a tribute to Admiral Fluckey, who passed away earlier this month, we recommend reading - or re-reading - his book, Thunder Below!, which was published in 1997. There is a memorial service for ADM Fluckey scheduled for 28 August @10:00 AM in the US Naval Academy Chapel.]

Tom Clancy called it "The real story of a real hero." Kirkus Reviews said, "Fluckey offers a grippingly detailed account of his command's hell-and-high-water feats, which won him the Congressional Medal of Honor, as well as four Navy Crosses. . . . A standout in a field crowded with first-rate entries."
Booklist wrote, "The most detailed account yet of the Barb's exploits, and the able and effective Fluckey tells it vigorously. . . . A book likely to find a good many readers among naval history buffs."
And Cdr. Bruce I. Meader, USN (Ret.), Sea Power, called it "A rousing good war story . . . the story of an unusual leader, a tactical genius, and one of the last of America's great WWII heroes."
Thunder Below! was a winner of the Rear Admiral Samuel Eliot Morison Award for Naval Literature given by the Naval Order of the United States, New York Commandery. [UniversityofIllinoisPress]


Thomas A. Parrott, CIA Official. Thomas A. Parrott, 92, a former official with the Central Intelligence Agency and a member of several hospital boards and citizen groups, died June 14 of a heart attack at his home in Washington. He had a second home in Fishers Island, N.Y.

Mr. Parrott was born at Fort Sam Houston, Tex., and graduated from high school in Princeton, N.J. He was a 1936 graduate of Princeton University.

During World War II, he served in the Army in North Africa and Italy and was awarded the Soldier's Medal and Legion of Merit. He served in the Army Reserve for many years.

Mr. Parrott spent 24 years with the CIA and was assistant deputy director for national intelligence programs. Early in his career, he was deputy chief of the Soviet division of the clandestine services unit, a base chief in Germany and an assistant to CIA Director Allen Dulles. During the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962, he was assigned to the White House.

After retiring from the CIA in 1973, Mr. Parrott was vice chairman of the board of the Washington Hospital Center and was a founding director of the National Rehabilitation Hospital. He was an officer of the Citizens Association of Georgetown and served on the boards of the Foundation for the Preservation of Historic Georgetown and Hospice Care of D.C. He was on the original board of the City Tavern Club and was a member of the Chevy Chase Club and the Metropolitan Club. He had lived in Georgetown since 1949.

A son, Tommy Parrott, died in 1957. Survivors include his wife of 67 years, Barbara Parrott of Washington; two daughters, Cynthia MacNair and Susan Crary, both of New York; and three grandchildren. [Schudel/WashingtonPost/15July2007]

Rene Sanford Peyton, CIA Analyst. Rene Sanford Peyton, 89, chief of the CIA's Soviet Russia Reports and Requirements section in the early years of the agency and later a Soviet analyst, died July 9 at the Wheelock Terrace assisted living center in Hanover, N.H. She had complications of Alzheimer's disease.

Mrs. Peyton was born in Columbus, Ohio. She was the daughter of an Army officer and grew up in Washington; Claremont, Calif.; Cheyenne, Wyo.; and Denver. She graduated from Scripps College in Claremont and received a master's degree in sociology and anthropology from Claremont College in 1940. For two years, she lived and worked in Panama and then began teaching at the University of Wisconsin as older faculty members were called away to the war.

From 1943 to 1945, Mrs. Peyton was on the staff of the Office of Strategic Services in Washington and Switzerland. She joined the CIA at its inception and led a 25-person section until 1957. She worked part time for several years and worked on contract while raising her children. In 1977, Mrs. Peyton went back to a full-time position at the agency until she retired in 1982. She had lived in Washington and Arlington County since 1943.

She volunteered as director of Christian education for Christ Episcopal Church in Georgetown, as a Girl Scout troop leader in Arlington, as a trustee of the Episcopal Center for Children in Washington and as an outreach volunteer for St. Peter's Episcopal Church in Arlington. She maintained a liaison with the Rosebud, S.D., Sioux Indian reservation, where her grandfather, the Rev. David Sanford, had served as missionary in the 1880s.

Her husband of 32 years, Philip Barbour Peyton Jr., died in 1988.Survivors include two daughters, Lizann Peyton of Norwich, Vt., and Sarah Peyton Weiser of Chapel Hill, N.C.; and four granddaughters. [Sullivan/WashingtonPost/16July2007]

Gordon T. Shahin Sr., CIA Management Professor. Gordon T. Shahin Sr., 82, an engineer who worked for the CIA for 29 years, died of complications of diabetes July 12 at Sibley Memorial Hospital. He lived in Reston.

Mr. Shahin was born in Niagara Falls, N.Y., and enlisted in the Army after high school and served during World War II with the 75th Infantry Division in France. After the war, he graduated from Cornell University and the University at Buffalo, then received two master's degrees in engineering, one from Buffalo in 1948 and another from Syracuse University in 1950. He received a doctorate in operations research from Ohio State University in 1960.

Mr. Shahin worked for Bell Aircraft in Ohio and taught at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Ohio. He joined the CIA in 1967 and moved to the Washington area.

Mr. Shahin was a professor of executive management training at the agency until 1996 and also taught evenings in the graduate business school at American University. He previously worked on the X-1 fighter plane while employed at Bell Aircraft in the 1950s.

He was a supporter of Arena Stage, the Dayton Civic Ballet in Ohio and St. Jude's Children's Research Hospital in Memphis. He was a member of the American Management Association and the Knights of Columbus.

A daughter, Roberta Shahin Dougherty, died in 1997. Survivors include his wife of 56 years, Charlotte F. Shahin of Reston; three children, Nancy Lynn Shahin Itteilag of Potomac, Mary Beth Neiman of Potomac Falls and Gordon T. Shahin Jr. of Bellaire, Tex.; a brother, Edward J. Shahin of McLean; a sister, Lois Riscile of Niagara Falls; and seven grandchildren. [Sullivan/WashingtonPost/16July2007]

Retired Gen. Wayne Downing Dies at 67. Retired Gen. Wayne Downing, one of President Bush's key counterterrorism advisers after the Sept. 11 attacks, died Wednesday, a coroner said. He was 67.

The four-star general was admitted to the hospital Monday, suffering from bacterial meningitis and multiple myeloma, a form of cancer, Peoria County Coroner Johnna Ingersoll said.

The West Point graduate retired in 1996 after 34 years in the military, ending his career as head of all U.S. special operations forces. He commanded more than 47,000 soldiers, including the Army's Green Berets and Navy's SEALs. General Downing was pulled from retirement after terrorists attacked the World Trade Center and Pentagon in 2001 and appointed by President Bush as national director and deputy national security adviser for combating terrorism. He had also been tapped in his retirement to lead a 40-person presidential task force that investigated a 1996 attack that killed 19 Americans at Khobar Towers in Saudi Arabia, making recommendations on how to better protect Americans abroad.

Downing "served this country well for many years in the military and at the White House, and even after government service continued to provide important advice and counsel," White House spokesman Tony Snow said.

During Operation Desert Storm in 1991, Downing commanded a joint task force of 1,200 U.S. special forces that halted Iraq's SCUD missile attacks on Israel and eased overall missile threats in the war zone.

Downing, a military analyst for MSNBC, received the U.S. Military Academy's distinguished graduate award in 2006. "His reputation was that of a smart, decisive, forceful and caring leader, known in particular for his unwavering determination to accomplish any mission assigned and provide his soldiers the best possible support," the academy wrote in bestowing the honor. [Dennis/AssociatedPress/18July2007]


Last week's WIN incorrectly identified General Ali Reza Asgari as an Iraqi. Asgari is an Iranian. The text should have read:

Defecting Iranian Intelligence General Reveals Iranian Nuclear Secrets. Iranian general, Ali Reza Asgari, who disappeared in Istanbul last February, has defected and is being held by the United States, Yedioth Ahronot published Sunday. Asgari was considered by the US one of the top intelligence officials in Iran.

We apologize for any confusion, and thank the many members who noted the mistake.

Coming Events

24 July 2007 - Crystal City, VA - PLA Naval Attach� to give luncheon presentation. The Naval Attach� for PLA Navy will give a luncheon presentation to the Surface Navy Association Greater Washington Chapter (GWC) on Tuesday 24 July at Hyatt Regency Crystal City Hotel. See for further details.

24 July 2007 - Washington, DC - Scott Carmichael to speak at the International Spy Museum Program. Known to her coworkers as the Queen of Cuba, Ana Montes, the intelligence community's top Cuban analyst, appeared to be a model employee of the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA). However, throughout her 16-year career at the DIA, Montes sent Castro some of America's most closely guarded secrets, and used her position to influence what the U.S. thought about the island nation. Join Scott W. Carmichael, the DIA's senior counterintelligence investigator, for this inside account of the effort to bring Montes to justice. Carmichael's new book, True Believer: Inside the Investigation and Capture of Ana Montes, Cuba's Master Spy , reveals how he grew suspicious of her activities and the long and ultimately successful spy hunt which ended less than 24 hours before Montes would have learned details of the U.S plan to invade Afghanistan post September 11. Tickets: $20. . For ticket information:

4 August 2007 - Melbourne, FL - AFIO Florida Satellite Chapter meets at the Indian River Colony Club The Chapter August luncheon will be held at the Indian River Colony Club (IRCC). A cash bar will open at 1130 hours and lunch will begin at 1230 hours. Speaker details and reservation information is forthcoming. For additional information please contact George Stephenson, Chapter Vice President at and title your email: AFIO August Meeting

13-14 August 2007 - El Paso, TX - "Securing and Managing Our Nation's Borders" is the theme of the Fourth Annual Border Security Conference at the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) in conjunction with the Office of Congressman Silvestre Reyes. The Border Security Conference brings together leaders from the public and private sectors in both the United States and Mexico to explore how best to safeguard our common borders, while simultaneously fostering the continued human and economic development of our two nations. This year's conference will focus on key issues such as emerging border security strategies at the local, national and binational levels; next-generation border security technologies; and strengthening intelligence through diversity and binational cooperation. UTEP's ability to contribute to this dialogue is greatly enhanced by both our unique location on the U.S.-Mexico border and the wide range of border-related research and educational programs on our campus, including the newly established Intelligence Community Center for Academic Excellence. For more information and registration (no cost to attend), visit: Speakers include: Mr. Michael Delaney, House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence; Mr. Jose Rodríguez, Central Intelligence Agency; The Honorable Jay M. Cohen Undersecretary for Science and Technology Department for Homeland Security; The Honorable Arturo Sarukhan, Ambassador Embassy of Mexico (Invited); The Honorable Michael Chertoff, Secretary, U.S. Department of Homeland Security; Admiral Thad W. Allen, Commandant US Coast Guard; The Honorable Jane Harman, Chairwoman, Subcommittee on Intelligence, Information Sharing and Terrorism Risk Assessment (Invited); General Gene Renuart, Commander, US Northern Command (Invited); Irene S. Hernández, Acting Director, National Drug Intelligence Center (Invited); Anthony Placido Assistant Administrator and Chief Intelligence Officer Drug Enforcement Administration The Honorable Mike McConnell, Director of National Intelligence, Office of the Director of National Intelligence.

25 August 2007 - Seattle, WA - AFIO Pacific Northwest Chapter Meeting. 25 August 2007 - Seattle, WA - AFIO Pacific Northwest Chapter Meeting featuring Capt Cannady, LTC Woodard, and Maj. Krueger. An outstanding program is planned with speakers from McChord AFB and the Washington National Guard. Captain Matthew Cannady is the Intelligence Officer assigned to the Western Air Defense Sector (WADS) at McChord. He will provide an in-depth briefing on the workings of the Air Defense system on the West Coast. Lt. Colonel Timothy Woodard the J2 of the Washington National Guard and Major Bill Krueger will provide a detailed briefing on the recently created 194th Intelligence Squadron. The cost of the meeting will be $25 which includes a breakfast buffet. Time: 09:30am - 1:30pm. Where: South View Lounge at the Museum of Flight. The meeting is open to anyone interested in national intelligence whether they are a member or not. The chapter welcomes family, friends and associates to attend. SPECIAL OFFER: A gracious corporate donor has agreed to pay $5 for each of the first 10 people who send their CHECKs to arrive with Fran Dyer prior to July 16. The first 10 people who meet these conditions will receive a $5 refund at the meeting. Please mail your checks, payable to AFIO PNW Chapter, to: AFIO PNW Chapter, 4616 25th Ave NE Suite 495, Seattle, WA 98105. Please RSVP Fran Dyer at:

27 - 29 August 2007 - New Orleans, LA - SYNERGY '07 - Conference and Expo - Advancing an Integrated Defense Intelligence Enterprise. Co-sponsored by: The Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence (USD/I). The Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence, (USD/I), headed by Lt Gen James R. Clapper, Jr.,, USAF(Ret) is co-sponsoring with Government Emerging Technology Alliance (GETA) this Synergy �07 New Orleans, LA. Synergy '07 will strive to bring DoD Operations and Intelligence Community representatives together for open dialog with the objective of fostering better collaboration between decision makers and members of the war-fighting, requirements, collections, analytics and vendor communities. The conference, chaired by Brigadier General Billy J. Bingham (USAF, ret), a former Assistant Deputy Director for Operations and Deputy Chief, Central Security Service at Fort George G. Meade, and Director of Intelligence (J2) U.S. Pacific Command, will focus on past operational successes as a means of addressing the impediments and challenges that the various components face in providing quality support to U.S. warfighters during peace, crisis and wartime. "What we are hoping to do is build a confederation of communities, including, to the extent possible, our coalition partners that will increase the effectiveness of DoD operations and provide upgraded support from the ISR community to our boots on the ground warfighters," said Jim Riggins, NCSI's Executive Director of Intelligence Community Programs and Initiatives. More about the conference can be found at

6 September 2007 - Front Royal, VA - Tony Sesow Golf Classic. The Naval Intelligence Foundation hosts its annual "Tony Sesow Golf Classic" fund-raising tournament at the Shenandoah Valley Golf Course. The tournament starts at 0800 with registration, followed by a light breakfast and concludes with lunch and refreshments. Lucky draw and all skill prizes will be awarded. The cost is $80.00 for an individual, $300.00 for a team and sponsorship is available for $400.00 (team included). Each Closest-to-the Pin winner will automatically be entered into the Jetblue shoot-out for $50,000 which will take place directly after the tournament. For sponsorship and additional information, please contact Peter Buchan at (540) 671-4435 or

9-14 September 2007 - Oxford, United Kingdom - Christ Church Conflict Conference 2007 "The Nature of War" The object of the 2007 Conflict conference is to study War in its various manifestations, its apparent �permanence as a feature of the human condition� (Clausewitz), and the successes and failures of attempts to control it. The program looks first of the basic steps on the road to war, not least an examination of alternatives to armed conflict. Next, the different types of war: civil wars that engulfed the English-speaking world in the 17th and 19th centuries, or Bosnia in 1990; conventional warfare between nation states: the 20th century and its two world wars, guerilla wars and the conflicts of decolonization - and the uniqueness of the Falklands War of 1982. All these will come under scrutiny. The pervading granular warfare that engages us all today with the threat of terrorism, focused closely on the present Iraqi conflict. Finally there will be an examination of the outcomes of war and the inevitable social change that comes in its wake. Christ Church welcomes speakers of the highest distinction and scholarship. Speakers at the Nature of War conference are drawn from amongst political and military experts as well as the media. Amongst those participating are Professor Kenneth Hagan of the US Naval War College; Larry Hollingworth, with personal experience of the Iraqi conflict and a veteran of Afghanistan, Chechnya and East Timor; and Major-General Julian Thompson, military commander in the Falklands War. The program will be administered by Alex Webb, and her Christ Church conference team. Further information will be shortly published on the Christ Church website and an illustrated prospectus will be available. Contact Nature of War, The Steward's Office, Christ Church, Oxford, OX1 1DP, U.K. or email, telephone +44 (0) 1865 286848.

20 September 2007 - Colorado Springs, CO - AFIO Rocky Mountain Chapter holds luncheon meeting at the Falcon Room, Air Force Academy Officers Club. Cost $10.00 for each lunch buffet. Inquiries to Dick Durham. Treasurer of the Chapter at

20 September 2007, 6 pm - 10 pm - Tysons Corner, VA - The OSS Society hosts the William J. Donovan Award Dinner The dinner will honor MG John K. Singlaub USA(Ret), the current Chairman of The Society, who will be the Award's 2007 recipient. The event will include The Society's own celebration of the 60th anniversary of the founding of CIA, formed after the OSS disbanded. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates has been invited to present a keynote address, and other military leaders are invited. Further details can be found at

26 - 27 September 2007 - The Hague, Netherlands - Netherlands Intelligence Studies Association (NISA) CONFERENCE 2008 The Netherlands Defence College (IDL), The Hague, Netherlands is the location for 'Intelligence Failures and Cultural Misperceptions: Asia, 1945 till the present' The NISA would like to invite both academic and (former) practitioners of intelligence to submit proposals for papers that entail a theoretical approach to the intelligence failures and cultural misperceptions against the backdrop of the situation in Asia since 1945. The intention of the conference organizers is to develop a more analytical perspective on the above mentioned events, rather than adding to existing descriptive narratives. Submitters are requested to send in proposals of approximately 400 words pertaining to the following subjects : The Cold War in Asia Economic espionage in and from Asia Intelligence cultures UKUSA cooperation in Asia The 'war on terror' Proposals should be submitted no later than 1 May, 2007 and can be sent to: or write to

28 September 2007 - Tysons Corner, VA - AFIO National Summer Luncheon Hold date on your calendars. Event to be held at the Holiday Inn Hotel, Tysons Corner/Vienna, VA. Details to follow.

and for your October planning.....

25-27 October 2007 - McLean, VA - AFIO National Intelligence Symposium The AFIO National Intelligence Symposium runs Thursday, October 25 through Saturday, October 27, in Tysons Corner, VA. Hotel details to be provided this week. Using a different format, it will feature presentations on a special, controversial topic: the view of intelligence agencies and other public institutions in terms of missions assigned and from where, performance, assessment of results, and where to place blame for current and historic unwanted outcomes. Will include presentations by the National Counterterrorism Executive, NSA, FBI, DHS, and other speakers.

For Additional Events two+ months or greater....view our online Calendar of Events


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