AFIO Weekly Intelligence Notes #42-07 dated 5 November 2007

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U.S. Intelligence Budget: $43.5 Billion. The Director of National Intelligence revealed that in 2007, the U.S. intelligence community budget was $43.5 billion. This marks tremendous growth over the past decade, driven largely by counterterrorism efforts and wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. The intelligence budget stood at $26.7 billion when it was last disclosed publicly in 1998. On an inflation-adjusted basis, the increase in spending over the past decade is about 27 percent. Both figures cover the National Intelligence Program, which does not include military intelligence programs. When Army, Navy, and Air Force intelligence programs are factored in, the nation's total intelligence spending is believed to top $50 billion. [Whitelaw/USNews/30October2007] 

Germany's BND Foreign Intelligence Service to Be Overhauled. Germany's BND foreign intelligence service faces a radical overhaul after a series of scandals. "The service will undergo a thorough reform process," said Bundesnachrichtendienst (BND) spokesman Stefan Borchert on Saturday, Oct. 27. "Antiquated and crusty structures will be broken up." The aim is for the agency to become stronger as a "service provider" for the German government and parliament, Borchert said, adding that Berlin's control over the agency will be strengthened.

The reform of the BND, which has 6,000 employees, is due to be completed by 2009, the same year as Germany's next parliamentary elections, and three years before the agency is due to complete its move from Pullach, near Munich, to Berlin. The service's upper tiers will be trimmed down, and the number of departments will be expanded from eight to twelve. The BND will have a new "proliferation" department, which will deal with illegal weapons deals. There will no longer be a separation between agents who collect information and those who analyze it.

The BND's 50-year history is speckled with scandals. It has most recently come under scrutiny for questionable actions in Afghanistan and for spying on journalists in Germany, a practice that was only suspended in late 2005. Borchert stressed that the reform plans were not the result of "alleged or real existing scandals." He said an overhaul had been under debate for a long time in order to prepare the BND for "future challenges," but that the events had made reform more urgent. [DW-World/29October2007] 

Pakistani President Orders Spy Agencies to Stay Away From Elections. President General Pervez Musharraf has decided that the intelligence agencies will not be allowed to interfere in the election process in the next general elections and orders have been issued to all the agencies in this respect. It has also been decided in principle that no former Army general would be appointed as caretaker prime minister and the caretaker cabinets at the federal and provincial level would not comprise armed forces personnel, the sources added. They said the president will announce a date for the holding of the next general elections in the country simultaneously with the appointment of a caretaker prime minister in the second week of November.

The decision to keep the agencies away from the polls has been taken as a demonstration of the intent to hold free and transparent elections. The president has asked the intelligence agencies not to establish contact with any candidate or any political leader for any purpose other than stipulated in their charter of professional duties. They have been asked to concentrate on security-related matters and law and order situation. Sources have revealed that President Musharraf decided not to assign any clandestine role to the intelligence agencies as it was a major demand not only of the international community but of most political parties as well. [Zaafir/TheNews/31October2007]

North Korea Stops Spy Flights Due to Fuel Shortage. North Korea has suspended flight training for military aircraft aimed at infiltrating special operation forces in rival South Korea because of fuel shortages. Yonhap news agency, quoting unidentified government and military sources, said the impoverished country's military has had to halt training flights of the Soviet-designed AN-2 planes as the fuel shortages have been worsened by soaring oil prices.

North Korea has about 300 aging single-engine AN-2 biplanes which can carry up to 13 armed special operation forces to be parachuted deep into South Korean territory in case of war, according to the report. The planes are believed to be a Chinese version made of wood and cloth, making them difficult to detect on radar. An official at the South Korean Defense Ministry said he was aware of the Yonhap report, but declined to confirm its accuracy.

Officials at the National Intelligence Service, South Korea's main spy agency, were not immediately available to comment on the report. [Hyung-jin Kim/AP/29October2007] 

Russian Major Jailed as Polish Spy. A military court in Moscow has sentenced a Russian officer to seven years in prison for spying for Poland. Maj. Sergei Yurenya was put on trial in August, accused of selling military secrets to Polish secret agencies. The Federal Security Service (FSB) said Maj Yurenya had provided Poland with intelligence on military units in central Russia. Maj. Yurenya was arrested in March this year "while performing a new Polish assignment to infiltrate into FSB ranks", military prosecutor Ramil Shakurov told the RIA Novosti agency.

Poland and Russia engaged in tit-for-tat expulsions of diplomats accused of spying in 2000. The FSB said Maj. Yurenya had been recruited by Polish secret services in 2005-2006 and subsequently provided them with accurate information on the staffing and movement of military personnel in the Moscow Military District, an area covering 700,000 sq km (430,000 sq miles).

Relations between Poland and Russia have been tense since the collapse of the Warsaw Pact in the early 1990s, with Moscow opposing Poland's accession to Nato in 1997. [BBC/30October2007] 

China Seeks Taiwan Spy for Computer Hacking. China is seeking an alleged Taiwanese spy who purportedly hacked into sensitive government computer systems on the mainland, a Chinese newspaper has reported. The government-run Global Times said Tuesday that Lee Fang-rong, said to be an agent of Taiwan military intelligence, planted "Trojan" programs in computer systems belonging to unnamed economic, military and diplomatic institutions to steal classified information. A trojan program gives a user remote access to the contents of his target's computer.

The Global Times attributed its information to an unidentified official in a "related" Chinese department. It did not identify the department but the implication was that it was part of the Chinese intelligence apparatus. The newspaper said that Lee was in Taiwan, but that he had previously been in Moscow, where he might have carried out the hacking. [IHT/31October2007] 

Russian Arms Control Researcher Convicted of Espionage Faces Death in Prison, Family Says. The health of a Russian arms control researcher convicted of treason and espionage has seriously deteriorated since he was placed in a punishment cell early this year, according to his parents. Igor Sutyagin, who is serving a 15-year sentence in a maximum security prison, has developed severe digestive problems and has difficulty eating, said his mother, Svetlana Sutyagina, who visited him recently. "He has been in a prison within a prison since February," she told journalists. "His life is in danger because he is in very bad shape."

Sutyagin, 42, was arrested in October 1999 and convicted in 2004 on charges of passing information on nuclear submarines and missile-warning systems to a British company that investigators claimed was a CIA cover. He has denied engaging in espionage, insisting the information he provided for a book on Russian nuclear weapons was obtained from open sources. "Any other scientist who worked for a foreign company could have been in Sutyagin's place," said human rights advocate Ludmila Alexeyeva, head of the Moscow Helsinki Group. When state funding to research institutes dried up after the Soviet collapse, many Russian scholars worked under contracts from foreign researchers. A growing number of Russian academics and scientists have been targeted by the Federal Security Service, or FSB, and accused of misusing classified information, revealing state secrets or, in some cases, espionage. The prosecutions have drawn criticism from Russian rights activists, who say the FSB is deeply suspicious of Russian scientists' contacts with foreigners.

Sutyagin, who has been in custody since his arrest eight years ago, was transferred in 2005 to a maximum security penal colony for repeat offenders in the northern city of Archangelsk. Defense attorney Ernst Chyorny said Sutyagin's case has been passed to the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg, France. [KYIVPOST/31October2007] 

US Spy Planes Watching Iraqi-Turkish Border. American U2 reconnaissance planes have been flying over the Turkey-Iraq border to observe military movements, said three U.S. military sources. Turkey - which shares its Incirlik air base with U.S. forces - is a key member of NATO and acts as a vital conduit for U.S. military supplies. Pentagon spokesman Geoff Morrell confirmed that U.S. military and intelligence communities are sharing information with Turkey to help them fight members of the Kurdistan Workers' Party, or PKK, who have made cross-border attacks. 

"We are assisting by supplying them, the Turks, with intelligence, lots of intelligence," said Morrell. "There has been an increased level" of intelligence sharing. [CNN/31October2007]

Russian Rocket Sends German Spy Satellite Into Orbit. A Russian rocket sent a German spy satellite into orbit, according to news agencies. The Kosmos-3M rocket blasted off from the Plesetsk space center in north Russia's Arkhangelsk region, putting the German SAR-Lupe satellite into target orbit, Russian Space Forces spokesman Alexei Zolotukhin was quoted as saying. It was the third launch of five SAR-Lupe satellites, which will all be put into space by Russia in 2009, according to a contract signed in 2003. The previous two took place in December 2006 and July 2007 respectively. 

Intelligence Chief Curbs Declassifying Summaries. National Intelligence Director Mike McConnell has reversed the recent practice of declassifying and releasing summaries of national intelligence estimates, according to a top intelligence official. Knowing their words may be scrutinized outside the U.S. government chills analysts' willingness to provide unvarnished opinions and information, said David Shedd, a deputy to McConnell. He told congressional aides and reporters that McConnell recently issued a directive making it more difficult to declassify the key judgments of national intelligence estimates, which are forward-looking analyses prepared for the White House and Congress that represent the consensus of the nation's 16 spy agencies on a single issue. The analysis comes from various sources including the CIA, the military and intelligence agencies inside federal departments. Referring to the public release of the reports, Shedd said during a Capitol Hill briefing: "It affects the quality of what's written."

So far this year, the national intelligence director's office has released unclassified key judgments from three national intelligence estimates - two on Iraq and one on terrorist threats to the U.S. homeland.

The trend toward releasing NIEs started about four years ago, most notably with the White House's July 2003 disclosure of key judgments from a controversial NIE on Iraq's weapons-of-mass-destruction program. The White House was pressured to release those findings after parts of the NIE that supported the Bush administration's case for war against Iraq were leaked to the press. The 2002 NIE contained a warning from the State Department's intelligence office that it did not believe Iraq was actively pursuing a nuclear weapon. That dissenting opinion was not widely disclosed until after the war had already been launched. [Hess/StLouisPostDispatch/28October2007] 

U.S. Provides 'Actionable Intelligence' On Rebels. The United States has given Turkey's armed forces "actionable intelligence" on rebels from the Kurdistan Workers Party, or PKK, based in northern Iraq, information that could be used to guide a military strike, according to the Pentagon. "We are assisting the Turks in their efforts to combat the PKK by supplying them with intelligence, lots of intelligence," Pentagon press secretary Geoff Morrell told reporters.

The Pentagon released the statement after Turkish officials reacted angrily to comments by a U.S. commander in northern Iraq late last week that U.S. forces were doing "absolutely nothing" to curtail PKK suspects operating from bases in Iraq's largely Kurdish north. But with Ankara threatening a military incursion into Iraq to deal with the PKK, the Defense Department acknowledged yesterday that the U.S. military has stepped up its own anti-PKK activity, including flying manned spy planes over the border area and ordering American troops to capture any rebels they find. U.S. and Iraqi officials have worked hard to head off a Turkish incursion, but Mr. Morrell said the information being given to Turkish planners could be the precursor to military action.

"The key for any sort of military response from the Turks or anyone else is having actionable intelligence. That's a pretty high standard and we are making efforts to help them get actionable intelligence," Mr. Morrell said. [Sands/WashingtonTimes/28October2007]

Secret Source of Phony Iraq Intel Outed. The Iraqi defector code-named "Curveball," whose false tales of biological weapons labs bolstered the U.S. case for war, wasn't the prominent chemical engineer he claimed to be and invented stories to help his case for asylum in Germany, a new report says. "Curveball" is Rafid Ahmed Alwan, who did study chemical engineering but made poor grades and never managed a biological weapons facility, according to CBS' "60 Minutes," which will broadcast on Sunday a report describing how Alwan became a secret intelligence source.

Although known publicly only by his code name, Curveball has been repeatedly discredited by investigations of the United States' faulty prewar intelligence and became an embarrassment to U.S. spy agencies. A presidential intelligence commission found that Curveball, who mostly told his stories to German intelligence officials who passed them on to the U.S., was a fabricator and an alcoholic.

"60 Minutes" reports that Alwan arrived at a German refugee center in 1999 and began spinning his tales of a facility making mobile biological weapons in an effort to gain asylum. The ploy apparently achieved his goal, and Alwan is assumed to be living in Germany today under an assumed name.

Although German intelligence officials warned the CIA that Curveball's claims of mobile bioweapons labs were unreliable, and U.N. inspectors determined before the war began in 2003 that parts of his story were false, the Bush administration continued to promote the existence of such mobile labs for months after the invasion, until it was widely accepted that they could not be found. [AP/2November2007] 

U.S. A-Bomb Spy Becomes "Hero of Russia." The only Soviet spy who managed to infiltrate secret U.S. nuclear facilities has been honored posthumously with Russia's highest honorary title by president Vladimir Putin. The 'Hero of Russia' medal was donated to Moscow's Military Intelligence Museum. 

During World War II, George Koval, also known as 'Delmar', collected secret information about the production of the first U.S. atomic bomb and sent it to Moscow.

Koval's work drastically reduced the amount of time it took for Russia to develop its nuclear weapons.

Speaking at the award ceremony, Vladimir Putin stressed this man's work strengthened Russia's defense capabilities considerably. [RussiaToday/2November2007] 


Reports of Errors in US Terrorist Database. The United States terrorist database being used by New Zealand spies has come under serious fire for being error-prone and likely to cause innocent people to be detained by American authorities. The Security Intelligence Service has announced it signed a new information-sharing deal with the US under which it gains access to a US terrorist database. The agency said the deal would enhance national security "by improving our ability to identify individuals with links to terrorism before they are granted or denied entry to the border". 

However, concerns about the accuracy of information and the use to which it could be put have been raised by a US Justice Department audit report on the US Terrorist Screen Centre (TSC). The centre is run by the Federal Bureau of Investigation and its database is a consolidation of 12 US Government agency watch lists. The information it contains is available to provide 24-hour, seven-day-a-week operational support for federal, state, local and foreign governments. The terrorist database is used to screen people applying for visas, international travelers and people stopped for traffic offences. As of April, it had 720,000 records and that is growing by 20,000 records a month.

A US Justice Department audit published last month says management by the TSC "continues to have significant weaknesses" producing a high error rate and a slow response to complaints. The Washington Post reports that, in an examination of a sample of 105 records, auditors found that 38 per cent contained errors that had not been detected. [Stuff/29October2007] 

Watchdog Says CSIS Violated Rights of Terrorist. The Canadian Security Intelligence Service violated the constitutional rights of a citizen and strayed beyond its security mandate into the realm of law enforcement, says a federal watchdog. In its annual report tabled yesterday, the Security Intelligence Review Committee said Canada's spy agency "arbitrarily detained" Mohammed Mansour Jabarah in contravention of the Charter of Rights. Jabarah, a Canadian citizen, is an admitted al-Qaida member and leader of a terrorist cell that plotted to bomb the U.S. and Israeli embassies in Singapore and Manila. He was apprehended in Oman in March 2002 after the plan was derailed. "Jabarah is a terrorist, but also a Canadian citizen and no matter how despicable his actions, the Charter conferred on him certain fundamental rights," the review committee says in the report to Parliament.

CSIS officials went to Oman and arranged for Jabarah's return to Canada and subsequent transfer to the U.S. on a government-owned aircraft, since he apparently could not be charged with a crime under Canadian law. In the U.S., he pleaded guilty to various terrorism-related offences. He has not been sentenced and remains behind bars. The report found Jabarah's decisions - made without the benefit of any independent legal advice - resulted in his self-incrimination and surrender to U.S. authorities.

The committee found Jabarah could not be prosecuted for any crime in Canada, since his terrorist activities pre-dated Canada's Anti-terrorism Act. Therefore neither CSIS nor the police had any right to detain him. Based on these and other circumstances, the Committee concluded that Jabarah was "arbitrarily detained" by CSIS in violation of the Charter. In addition, his rights to silence, to legal counsel and to remain in Canada were breached, the report says. The review committee also concluded that CSIS "strayed from its security intelligence mandate into the area of law enforcement." [Bronskill/lfpress/31October2007] 

CIA Interrogations Yield Intelligence. CIA Director Michael V. Hayden revealed this week, in defending agency interrogations of terrorists, that more than 70 percent of the intelligence used in a recent national estimate came from questioning captured terrorists. "The last six years have shown us that the best sources of information on terrorists and their plans are the terrorists themselves," Mr. Hayden said in a speech Tuesday in Chicago. Calling the intelligence "simply irreplaceable," he also noted that the elicited information "is the sole reason we have rendition, detention and interrogation programs."

Fewer than 100 of the most hardened captured terrorists have been put through interrogation since 2002. "Of those, less than a third have required any special methods of questioning," Mr. Hayden said.

The CIA director said the National Intelligence Estimate confirmed that the danger of another major al Qaeda attack against the U.S. is real. Al Qaeda aims "to execute a spectacular attack that would cause mass casualties, massive destruction and economic harm," he said.

Mr. Hayden noted that the estimate was less certain about one key element of al Qaeda plans: the presence of group operatives inside the U.S.

The CIA director's comments are a tacit admission that the agency continues to have a difficult time planting spies inside or close to al Qaeda and other terrorist organizations. [Gertz/WashingtonTimes/2November2007] 


CIA's Venture Capital Arm Helps Fund, Guide Important Technology. Christopher Darby, chief executive officer of In-Q-Tel, says the venture capital arm of the CIA has a mission to foster technology that can help fight terrorism and increase national security. "In-Q-Tel allows the CIA a foothold in the Silicon Valley,'' says Gregory Treverton, a senior policy analyst at Rand Corp., a California-based public policy institute.

Since In-Q-Tel was founded in 1999, the firm has reviewed more than 6,300 business plans for everything from identity recognition software to nano-sized electronic circuits. In-Q-Tel has put about $200 million into more than 100 companies, beating traditional VC investors to such technologies as the mapping software that's become Google Earth. "One of the most important things about In-Q-Tel is that they're out there proactively looking for companies,'' Varah says. "They have a customer with a high technical standard.''

In-Q-Tel hasn't escaped controversy in its eight years as the CIA's venture arm. Until June, its 55 employees were required to put 10 percent of their compensation into a fund that invested in the same startups that In-Q-Tel was backing. The profits became part of their bonuses as In-Q-Tel generated hefty returns. In 2005, In-Q-Tel sold for $12 million investments that had cost it $1.9 million, according to the latest available tax filings. That raised concern on In-Q-Tel's board about the fund's mission. "This is not about making money,'' says Peter Barris, managing general partner at VC firm New Enterprise Associates in Reston, Va., and an In-Q-Tel director. "The focus should be on getting technology into the hands of the right people.''

In-Q-Tel is on its fourth chief executive officer, Christopher Darby, who joined from Intel Corp. in September 2006. At In-Q-Tel, Darby eliminated the controversial employee investment fund. He switched In-Q-Tel's focus from taking equity stakes in startups to acquiring technologies to meet the goals the CIA outlines in its annual directive called the "problem set.'' The top objectives are fighting terrorism and countering nuclear, biological and chemical weapons, Darby says.

In-Q-Tel is exploring holography and virtual reality in addition to the more mundane practices of searching text and video and translating languages faster and more accurately. In September, In-Q-Tel made an undisclosed investment in Forterra Systems Inc., whose software simulates situations such as urban warfare and lets participants place themselves in the action. Darby won't say what the CIA will use it for. Darby guards his comments during his first interview after taking over In-Q-Tel, occasionally stopping in midsentence. He never says the initialism CIA; he calls the agency "the customer.'' "The raison d'�tre for us is to get the right technology to the community,'' Darby says, referring to the CIA and its analysts. "It's important to look at the customer's problem set.''

Traditional venture capitalists say they prize a relationship with In-Q-Tel for the firm's connections to the federal government. "If In-Q-Tel's in a deal, it's like having the seal of Good Housekeeping,'' says Ted Schlein, a partner at Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, the VC firm that backed Inc. and Google Inc. Kleiner Perkins and In-Q-Tel got together in 2006 to invest $10 million in San Francisco-based 3VR Security Inc. The company's software compiles videos from different cameras and produces a timeline of events, allowing a viewer to follow a person as he moves through a building or parts of a city, CEO Stephen Russell says.

"In-Q-Tel took us around to various government agencies,'' says John Herring, CEO of iMove Inc., another In-Q-Tel investment. IMove's product combines six cameras into a sphere that monitors in all directions at the same time. "They made introductions and opened doors,'' he says. IMove won contracts from the Department of Defense, and its cameras are now used in Iraq.

Hooking up with In-Q-Tel gives VC firms access to its 30 engineers, who have pedigrees from IBM, Intel and other tech giants. The fact that In-Q-Tel isn't competing with VC firms to buy young startups that could become the next Facebook Inc. or Google helps ease potential rivalries. "We've had lots of meetings with VCs to define the new position,'' says Steve Bowsher, whom Darby hired to head In-Q-Tel's office in Menlo Park, Calif. "Chris Darby made it clear that we were a strategic investor and not a venture capital group.''

In-Q-Tel's investment in MotionDSP is one part of its strategy to analyze video. The technology relies on algorithms to capture objects in multiple frames and then replace lost pixels to reconstruct the original picture in high resolution. In-Q-Tel is also investing in software that enables images to be searched, much like Google sorts through text. In-Q-Tel has invested in PiXlogic, whose software uses visual pattern recognition to look for shapes and angles or facial features. If PiXlogic spots an orange ball on a surveillance tape, a person can program the software to identify orange balls on other tapes. Another part of In-Q-Tel's video strategy is the 3VR investment with Kleiner Perkins. After the London subway bombings on July 7, 2005, about 1,000 British police spent six weeks sifting through video from 6,000 surveillance cameras, says Russell. With 3VR, every time someone passes in front of a camera, the software assigns an identification number and establishes a profile based on the geometry of the person's face. The system can be programmed to recognize faces and to issue alerts once a suspect is spotted.

Darby plans to expand In-Q-Tel beyond Washington and Silicon Valley with an office in Boston to tap technology startups. He's also rearranged his technical team to closely follow CIA guidelines. Before, the teams were organized along industry segments. Now, engineers are organized according to the issues they deal with in the CIA's problem set, which can cross industry areas.

Darby's efforts are necessary for In-Q-Tel to respond to what the CIA requires and act as its eyes and ears in ferreting out promising technologies, says Stephanie O'Sullivan, the CIA's director of science and technology. "Darby realizes that we are the primary customer, and he's making changes to meet our needs,'' she says. [Foroohar/Bloomberg/29October2007] 

Tinker, Tailor, Satellite, Spy. The Central Intelligence Agency gets blamed for many bad things. It gets far less credit for good things. One thing that the CIA has not gotten credit for - because it has been kept secret for five decades - is that the agency was responsible for the United States' first space policy, and ultimately, the American civilian satellite program.

The first American space policy was conceived by a CIA official named Richard Bissell. Bissell may not be a household name, but is known to intelligence historians and both airplane aficionados and conspiracy theorists. He was the man in charge of the U-2 and the Mach 3 Blackbird spy plane programs, the Corona reconnaissance satellite, and the Bay of Pigs invasion. Some conspiracists believe he played a role in President Kennedy's assassination.

Bissell, it is now clear, was also the person who thought up the idea that Earth orbit should be free territory, open to any country that placed a satellite there. This idea, known as "freedom of space" or alternatively "right of overflight," was the first American space policy, and Bissell has never received credit for it, but the documentary evidence is definitive, although it may be incomplete.

The Good Shepherd

Bissell is little known today, and in fact was little known in his day, outside of select circles: today those groups are intelligence and aircraft historians, but in the 1950s they were intelligence bureaucrats and the Washington power brokers. 

Bissell was in many ways a typical CIA official of the 1950s, like a character out of the 2006 movie The Good Shepherd, or a John le Carre novel. A frumpy man in ill-fitting suits as an adult, he was born into a wealthy New England family - his father was president of an insurance company - and attended Groton and then Yale. He earned a Ph.D. in economics from Yale in 1939 and during World War II he worked as a civilian on logistics issues, such as how to most efficiently move supplies across the Atlantic Ocean. After World War 2 he played an important role in the Marshall Plan rebuilding Europe. By the early 1950s he seemed headed to an academic career as a professor at MIT, but he met Allen Dulles's sister, who then worked at the State Department and who suggested that he meet with Dulles about a possible job. In early 1954 Bissell joined the CIA as a special assistant to Dulles, a job with no clearly defined duties. Bissell soon became involved in numerous clandestine projects, including directing propaganda programs aimed at overthrowing the Arbenz government in Guatemala. He then turned his attentions to aerial reconnaissance and developed the freedom of space theory. 

The freedom of space theory is relatively simple: the Eisenhower administration, acting upon the advice of the ad hoc civilian Technological Capabilities Panel in early 1955, approved the "Scientific Satellite Program" as an ostensibly civilian effort to establish the legal right to overfly foreign territory during the International Geophysical Year of 1957-1958. This was intended to happen before the United States launched any military spacecraft and therefore establish a precedent that military spacecraft - particularly intelligence spacecraft (i.e. spy satellites) - could later exploit.

The man behind the curtain

The two most interesting documents pertaining to the freedom of space history were written by Richard Bissell in fall of 1954 and demonstrate that Bissell developed the concept of freedom of space. Although Bissell's name has been deleted from the documents, his title remains on several of them, and they were contained in an electronic folder that contained other documents that clearly indicated that the papers were from Bissell's office files. 

After working on subjects such as the Guatemalan coup, in fall of 1954 Bissell turned his attentions to aerial reconnaissance issues. Two major highly classified reconnaissance proposals circulated through senior intelligence channels that year. One was the RAND FEED BACK study that explored the possible intelligence data that a nuclear-powered satellite equipped with a television camera could return from low Earth orbit. The other was a privately funded proposal from the Lockheed Corporation for a high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft designated the CL-282. The Lockheed proposal had been developed by aircraft designer Kelly Johnson in response to an Air Force program known as Bald Eagle. Lockheed's proposal had been rejected by the Air Force because the plane was too flimsy by military standards, but that did not stop Johnson, who pitched his project to the CIA. Bissell had a junior Air Force officer on his staff summarize the airplane program in a memo that he sent up the chain of command.

Bissell recognized what a high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft could do. It could open up vast areas of Soviet territory that the United States knew nothing about and would be invulnerable to attack, and possibly even immune to detection. But he also undoubtedly realized that such an aircraft, flying at greater than 20,000 meters over the Soviet Union, would be a gross violation of national sovereignty. The Soviets would want to shoot it down, and would be fully justified doing so under international law.

Bissell was also aware of the proposal by civilian scientists to orbit an American scientific satellite as part of the International Geophysical Year. But at some point he must have made the connection between the high-flying aircraft and the higher-flying satellite and asked an insightful question: at what altitude did an object cease to violate sovereign territory? Did national sovereignty extend out beyond the atmosphere, into space, into infinity? Because a satellite in orbit would stay up under its own power - most unlike an airplane - perhaps one could argue that Earth orbit was not "airspace" (after all, there was no air) and was therefore international territory, like the open ocean. At some point Bissell took this thought experiment one step further and reasoned that a civilian scientific satellite could be used to establish the precedent that space was neutral territory. Fly a civilian satellite over the Soviet Union and eventually fly a military satellite and make the argument that both were in neutral territory.

Bissell then wrote a memo to his boss, Allen Dulles. "Because the satellite will be the greatest scientific advancement since the hydrogen bomb, the United States should do everything possible to gain the prestige of this achievement," Bissell wrote. "The first satellite should be launched in a peaceful setting not only to provide the greatest psychological warfare potential but also to facilitate the launching of future, more elaborate satellites." Then he added, "The International Geophysical Year, 1957-1958, offers a unique opportunity. It would provide the United States with maximum favorable publicity, an international setting, worldwide scientific cooperation, a clearly established peaceful motive, and a reaffirmation of Free World scientific values and methods."

Bissell followed this with a draft of a memo for Dulles to send to President Eisenhower dated September 24, 1954. "In order to retain the initiative in the Earth Satellite Vehicle field and yet avoid any military stigma, it would be of great psychological and political advantage for the U.S. to launch a first Earth Satellite Vehicle in a peaceful setting which stressed the scientific research aspects of the development. This would also set an international precedent that would make it easier for the U.S. to conduct future Earth Satellite Vehicle launchings."

Soon after receiving these documents, Dulles obtained Eisenhower's approval for the CIA to develop the high-flying reconnaissance aircraft, which was renamed the U-2. Dulles placed Bissell in charge of managing the effort and Bissell soon began acquiring assets and power within the CIA. By mid-1955 the U-2 was flying, and by mid-1956 it was flying over the Soviet Union. The Soviets detected it immediately, but rather than reveal to the world that they were powerless to defend against it, they filed their protests in secret and frantically worked on methods to shoot it down. By October 1957 they launched Sputnik and essentially codified the American freedom of space policy themselves. Of course, they still protested American military spacecraft that eventually overflew their territory, but this was primarily bluster, and the Soviet leadership recognized that they had forfeited the right to shoot down American satellites as they eventually shot down the U-2.

Bissell's success at developing the U-2 made him legendary within the intelligence community. In spring 1958 Eisenhower directed that the CIA develop the Corona reconnaissance satellite in the same manner that it had developed the U-2. Bissell ran that program very effectively as well. The whole time he was building up his power within the agency and acquiring authority over various "special projects," including covert action. In 1960 he proposed a covert operation against the Castro regime in Cuba and convinced his superiors to support it. When President Kennedy was sworn into office in early 1961 he continued this project without substantially questioning it. When the Bay of Pigs invasion blew up in Kennedy's face, Bissell was discredited. However, substantial misunderstandings remain about Bissell's fall from power. Although many historians have claimed that Bissell was eventually kicked out of the CIA by Kennedy due to the Bay of Pigs, few have explained why it took nearly a year for this to occur. Cargill Hall has found evidence that Bissell's dismissal was not so much because Bissell had angered Kennedy as because he angered two senior intelligence advisors - Din Land and James Killian, who had served on the TCP and later on PSAC and even later on an intelligence advisory board. Bissell's sin, Land and Killian believed, was in using the U-2 to support the Bay of Pigs invasion. Land and Killian believed that the CIA's technical intelligence systems were its greatest assets and should not be placed at risk over dubious plots like the Bay of Pigs. They lost confidence in him and he was forced out of the CIA, later running the Institute for Defense Analysis. [Day/TheSpaceReview/29October2007] 



Aleksandr Feklisov, Spy Tied to Rosenbergs, Dies at 94. Col. Aleksandr Feklisov, a Soviet spy whose long career included directing the intelligence-gathering of Julius Rosenberg, who was convicted of espionage and executed in 1953, and acting as an intermediary between the White House and the Kremlin during the 1962 Cuban missile crisis, has died. He was 94. Sergei Ivanov, head of the press service of the Russian Foreign Intelligence Service, announced the death, said Interfax, a Russian news service. Details of his death were not announced.

Mr. Feklisov was an intelligence officer for the Committee for State Security, best known by its Russian abbreviation, K.G.B., from 1939 to 1974, and a contract officer for the service from 1974 to 1986. He described his once-secret activities in a 1997 documentary on American television and in writings that include his autobiography, "The Man Behind the Rosenbergs" (2001). He said he spoke in part to shed "glory" on Mr. Rosenberg and his wife, Ethel, who was also executed for espionage in 1953. He said that Mrs. Rosenberg was not a spy and that Mr. Rosenberg gave the Soviets no atomic secrets, although he and those he recruited did provide valuable military information. He praised them as having put ideals, those of Communism, ahead of patriotism to their own country. The successor agency to the K.G.B. has refused to comment on Mr. Feklisov's statements and writings. His claims that espionage speeded development of Soviet atomic weapons by 18 months contradict official statements that the country's own scientists were almost wholly responsible.

Some American reviewers of his writing flatly doubt the word of a spy.

In an article at the time the Discovery Channel did the documentary on Mr. Feklisov, Walter Schneir, writing in The Nation, warned against "K.G.B. storytellers, strangers with mixed motives offering us piecemeal instant history." Harvey Klehr in The New Republic in 2001 suggested that Mr. Feklisov was "clouded by Marxist-Leninist illusions."

In the announcement of Mr. Feklisov's death, Mr. Ivanov said: "He conducted serious missions related to the procurement of secret scientific and technical information, including in the area of electronics, radiolocation and jet aircraft technology," adding that he also helped on nuclear issues.

Mr. Feklisov was born in Moscow on March 9, 1914, to a railroad switchman and a housewife. They lived in wooden shack and kept a cow. The son was trained as a radio technician and recruited into the intelligence service during a campaign to replace intellectuals with workers with technical skills.

After arduous training, he was assigned to the Soviet Consulate in New York in 1940 under the name Aleksandr Fomin. His code name was Kalistrat. He took over running Mr. Rosenberg as his agent in 1944. He wrote that of all his agents, Mr. Rosenberg was the only one he considered a friend. In turn, Mr. Rosenberg told him their meetings were "among the happiest moments of my life."

One happy moment occurred during the holiday season of 1944, when the two exchanged presents. Mr. Rosenberg gave Mr. Feklisov documents and parts to build a proximity fuse, a device that causes shells to explode in the vicinity of a target so that a direct hit is not required. The Soviets used one to shoot down the U-2 reconnaissance plane flown by Francis Gary Powers in 1960.

Mr. Feklisov was next assigned to London, where his relationship with Klaus Fuchs, a leading atomic scientist, was cooler but even more productive. Mr. Fuchs gave him a diagram of the principle behind the hydrogen bomb and the theoretical underpinning of its design.

In 1959, Mr. Feklisov helped set up and carry out security arrangements during Krushchev's visit to the United States. In Iowa, Krushchev stopped his car along country roads to jump out and stroke ears of corn, causing alarm among Mr. Feklisov's troops.

During the Cuban missile crisis in October 1962, Mr. Feklisov, then K.G.B. station chief in Washington, and John Scali, a correspondent for ABC, had several meetings, the content of which they passed on to high officials in their governments. Some sources believe that a deal for the Russians to remove their missiles from Cuba in return for an American promise not to invade was suggested in one of their conversations. A major disagreement between Mr. Feklisov and Mr. Scali, who died in 1995, was who had suggested meeting. Mr. Scali always insisted that Mr. Feklisov both initiated the first meeting and suggested the compromise, while Mr. Feklisov said it was Mr. Scali. In his book, Mr. Feklisov said he told Mr. Scali that if the Americans attacked Cuba, the Soviets would retaliate "at a sensitive point for you." Mr. Scali asked if he meant West Berlin, and Mr. Feklisov said yes, he wrote. Mr. Feklisov wrote that it was beyond his authority to threaten anything, but he was certain, he added, that Mr. Scali had passed on the threat. If their conversations were influential in quelling the crisis, Mr. Feklisov said, he was glad. But he said both had lacked the stature to play the role some historians suggest that they actually played. "The mistake the Americans made was to overestimate my own authority," Mr. Feklisov wrote. "I was speaking as a mere analyst while they saw me as a Kremlin spokesman."

Mr. Feklisov, who retired in 1986, trained spies, did research on intelligence matters and earned a doctorate in history. He also participated in other secret operations "that are too recent to be told," in his words. [Martin/NYTimes/31October2007] 

Andr�e de Jongh. Countess Andr�e de Jongh, who has died in Brussels aged 90, founded and organized the Comet Escape Line, the route from Belgium through France to Spain used by hundreds of Allied airmen to escape from Nazi-occupied Europe.

The youngest daughter of a schoolmaster, Andr�e de Jongh was born at Schaerbeek in German-occupied Belgium on November 30 1916. She trained as a nurse after being inspired by the work of Edith Cavell, the nurse who had been shot in 1915 for assisting British troops to escape. At the outbreak of the war she was working at Malm�dy, but immediately moved to Brussels when the Germans invaded her country.

Known to all simply as "D�d�e", Andr�e de Jongh began her resistance work as soon as the Germans advanced into Belgium in May 1940. At the time she was a 24-year-old commercial artist and Belgian Red Cross volunteer, but she gave up her work in order to nurse wounded soldiers; once they were able to walk, she found them safe houses and recruited her friends to help. As those soldiers and airmen evading capture were soon spread throughout Belgium, she had to find a means of returning them to Britain. With the help of her father, she set up a trail of safe houses along which she could move the men, from Brussels through Paris and on to the western Pyrenees, where loyal Basques gave her great support.

In August 1941 she took three soldiers along the route to Bilbao, where she approached the British consulate for future support. The vice-consul was skeptical, at first fearing a German plot. He could scarcely believe that so petite and attractive a young girl could have made the journey on foot across the mountains by a smugglers' trail after traveling across occupied France, and told her he would have to refer her plan to the British embassy in Madrid. She responded by saying that she would be back in a few weeks with more men.

In the meantime Airey Neave, who had earlier escaped from Colditz Castle and was now the coordinator of the London-based escape and evasion organization at MI9, was alerted to the appearance of this intriguing girl. There was a flow of telegrams and reports as attempts were made to establish her authenticity.

In October 1941, when D�d�e reappeared in Bilbao with a group of RAF aircrew, she met the MI9 representative who was based in the embassy in Madrid. The arrival of valuable aircrew dispelled any doubts about her and funding for the line was approved. D�d�e de Jongh, however, insisted that the Comet Line (as it became known) remained under Belgian control, and throughout the war it was organized by Belgian leaders at every stage of the journey from Brussels. She was given the codename "Postman", but Airey Neave always referred to her as D�d�e.

Once the Comet Line (so called because of the speed at which it operated) was established there was a constant stream of shot-down aircrew escorted to the "last house" in the French-Basque village of Urrugne. Whichever route the evaders took through France, they always ended up at this house, where they were sheltered before meeting Basque guides organized and led by a giant of a man known as Florentino. He constantly drove the evaders to move quickly as he helped them across the rivers and mountains, with D�d�e encouraging them from behind.

D�d�e de Jongh made more than 30 double crossings and escorted 116 evaders, including more than 80 aircrew. But on the night of January 15, 1943 she was sheltering at Urrugne with three RAF evaders when she was betrayed. The house was stormed and she was captured. When interrogated under torture by the Gestapo, in order to save others she admitted being the leader of Le Reseau Com�te. The Gestapo, however, refused to believe that such a young and innocent girl could be in charge of an underground movement whose compass stretched from Belgium to Spain.

The escape line survived, and by the time the Allies invaded France in June 1944 more than 500 men had passed down the line to safety. The "helpers", both men and women, had paid a great price: many were executed, including D�d�e's own father, Fr�d�ric, who faced a firing squad in 1944. 

D�d�e de Jongh was sent to Mauthausen and Ravensbruck concentration camps. For two years she lived on a diet of dirty potato and turnip soup, practicing her nursing skills and trying to avoid being singled out. Although she survived, she had become gravely ill and undernourished by the time she was released by the advancing Allied armies in April 1945. Many of her colleagues died in captivity; among them was Francia Usandizaga, who kept the last house at Urrugne.

After recovering her health D�d�e de Jongh went to Buckingham Palace, in 1946, to receive the George Medal � the highest civilian award for bravery available to a foreigner. After the ceremony the RAF Escaping Society gave a dinner in her honor hosted by Air Chief Marshal Sir Basil Embry. The Americans awarded her the Medal of Freedom and the French appointed her a Chevalier of the L�gion d'honneur. The Belgians appointed her a Chevalier of the Order of Leopold and awarded her the Croix de Guerre with palm. In 1985 she was created a countess by King Baudouin.

After the war she returned to nursing, spending many years as a sister at a leper colony in the Belgian Congo before moving to a hospital in Ethiopia where she was a matron. When her health and sight began to fail she returned to Brussels.

Airey Neave described Andr�e de Jongh as "one of our greatest agents", and wrote a book about her exploits called Little Cyclone (1954). She was revered by members of the RAF Escaping Society, while many others commented on her inner strength and humanity.

Andr�e de Jongh's philosophy was simple. In 2000 she recalled: "When war was declared I knew what needed to be done. There was no hesitation. We could not stop what we had to do although we knew the cost. Even if it was at the expense of our lives, we had to fight until the last breath."

In July this year a group of RAF personnel retraced the route of the Comet Line after going to see the frail D�d�e at a nursing home in Brussels. She died on October 13, a few days before the memorial service and reunion held annually in Brussels for the survivors and relatives of those who served with the Comet Line. She was unmarried. [Telegraph/2November2007] 

Victor Grayevsky. Victor Grayevsky, who died on October 18 aged 82, was a Polish-Jewish journalist, and in 1956 managed to obtain an advance copy of Nikita Khrushchev's speech to the closed session of the Communist Party's 20th Congress; Grayevsky gave the document to the Israelis, who then passed the contents to the CIA. 

The 26,000-word speech, delivered on February 25 1956, denounced Stalin's regime of terror. Grayevsky had been able to obtain a copy with the help of his lover, Lucia Baranowski, wife of Poland's deputy prime minister. He had come to see Lucia at the headquarters of the Communist Party, where she worked as secretary to Edward Ochab, the party leader. Grayevsky recalled: "I noticed a thick booklet with a red binding, with the words: 'The 20th Party Congress, the speech of Comrade Khrushchev' written on it." The booklet was one of the few top-secret copies sent from Moscow to leaders of the Eastern Bloc countries. Lucia allowed Grayevsky to remove the booklet for a couple of hours, and he took it to the Israeli embassy in Warsaw, where it was photocopied. The document provided a unique insight into the workings of the Soviet leadership. It was also the first official Soviet admission of the horrors perpetrated under Stalin. At the time Grayevsky was not employed as a spy, and he was not paid for his action, which arose from his Zionist convictions.

Mr. Grayevsky was born Victor Spielman in Cracow on July 29 1925. A week before Germany invaded Poland, the Spielman family fled eastwards to the Soviet Union, but were later exiled to Siberia and from there moved to Kazakhstan, where Victor graduated from high school. In 1946 he returned to Warsaw. After studying journalism at the Academy of Political Science, he worked for the Polish news agency PAP and joined the Communist Party. He also changed his surname to the Polish Grayevsky because he was advised that, as Spielman, "he wouldn't go far". In 1949 his parents and sister emigrated to Israel, but Victor remained in Poland, where he was appointed a senior editor responsible for the department dealing with the Soviet Union. In 1955, when his father fell seriously ill, Grayevsky traveled to Israel to visit him; it was on this trip that he became a Zionist, and two years later he emigrated to Israel. He settled in Jerusalem and worked in the Eastern Europe division of the Foreign Ministry, and as director of Polish-language broadcasting for immigrants on Israel Radio. 

For many years after coming to Israel, Grayevsky also worked as a double agent, posing as a Soviet spy but in fact serving the Israelis by feeding disinformation to Soviet intelligence officers. His Soviet handlers in Israel were KGB officers working under diplomatic cover or posing as clergy from the so-called Russian Orthodox Red Church in Israel. His meetings with them took place in Russian churches in Jerusalem and in nearby forests. Before these meetings his Israeli handlers would often provide him with "authentic" documents to pass to the Russians. 

Grayevsky left the Foreign Ministry in 1961 and was appointed director of Russian-language radio broadcasts. Four years later he was made director of Israel Radio's overseas broadcasting department with responsibility for all languages. He remained in the post until 1999, continuing his work as a double agent. In 1967 the Soviet Union cut off diplomatic relations with Israel. Shortly before its diplomats left the country, Grayevsky was summoned to a last meeting with his KGB handler, who told him: "You've done great work for the Soviet Union - we have decided to award you the Lenin Medal of Excellence. For obvious reasons, we cannot give it to you now, but it will be kept for you in Moscow." Needless to say, Grayevsky never collected it.

Victor Grayevsky was divorced and is survived by two children. [Telegraph/1November2007] 


Counter Intelligence Services has an opening position for an in-office investigator (manager) and we would like to interview with you ASAP.

Established in 1993 we truly do not specialize in one area of investigations or security - we are a full service investigative agency. The majority of our clients are long term accounts, and they are not just located within Florida but various states. Offering services from surveillance, skip traces, process services, countermeasures TSCM, research, and executive protection. We pride ourselves on not being the �jack of all trades��but rather look to career professionals as employees or subcontractors so that we can offer the very best service to our clients. 
Please respond via email to and provide the best date and time for an interview. Any former military or federal position will gain priority and we provide all licensing! Good computer/typing skills a must! 

Company: Counter Intelligence Services - A private investigative & security agency est. 1993, conducting professional investigations & security consulting.
Clientele: Various large clients - i.e. Home Depot, Bacardi, AutoNation - etc. and some of the largest law firms in the nation - i.e. Cochran Firm, Morgan & Morgan, Fowler & White, etc.
Position: In-office investigator (manager) conducting research, asset searches, skip traces, communication with clients, etc, among many other tasks.
Hours: 8:30 AM to 5:30 PM
Salary: $35,000 to $48,000 to start with commission sales offered. 
Time Accrual: 5 sick days, 2 personal days, paid holidays, and one week of paid vacation once here a year.
Bonus: One weeks pay during Hanukkah & Christmas with possible additional bonuses.
Location: Downtown Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33315
When: ASAP with a no later than starting date of Dec 1st

Requirements: Good computer skills (confirmed during interview), typing skills (know your home keys), communication skills, MANAGEMENT skills, a good working vehicle, and the ability to construct grammatically correct sentences. 
Preference: Former US Military, any former intelligence work conducted (any acronyms) - what departments or agency, Spanish speaking, and the ability to bring in clientele.

Directions: 9 SW 13th Street Second Floor Fort Lauderdale Florida 33315 
Take I-95 to Davie Blvd and exit going east for approximately 2 miles, making a right turn onto Andrews Avenue. We are the very next street being 13th Street where Davie is called Davie but it�s really 12th Street. Our building is 2-story, lime yellow/green in color and there is also a sign on Andrews Avenue with our address on it (9 SW 13th Street). Park in the meter parking and we will take care of your parking if you work here. 

NOTE: There is an accounting firm downstairs...please do not walk in downstairs! 
Look to the left of the building and there is a courtyard...follow the path into the courtyard and you will see stairs...walk on up and we will interview.

The National Youth Leadership Forum National Security (NYLF/NS) gives high-achieving high school students an up-close look at careers and current issues within the defense, intelligence and diplomatic communities.  Founded in 1992, the NYLF is a tuition-based educational organization established to help prepare extraordinary young people for their professional careers. Its mission is to bring various professions to life, empowering outstanding young people with confidence to make well-informed career choices. NYLF programs are held in nine cities throughout the United States.  NYLF/NS is currently looking to fill two positions:

Join the faculty of American Military University and never leave home!  If you missed the exhibit at the last conference, please note that AMU is both regionally and nationally accredited with over 4,000 students in its intelligence studies programs and totally online. All faculty members are or were IC practitioners with the appropriate academic credentials. Now hiring individuals with doctorates (to include JDs). Contact Gary Berry, department chair, at with your resume/CV. Program details at: .  Formal applications at:

CACI is seeking a Technical Project Manager for an immediate opening to support an Army Program Office at Ft. Belvoir.  The position provides acquisition management support to the APO  by overseeing the development and deployment of state-of-the-art sensor systems.  Job functions include managing the project through design, implementation, and testing according to program objectives. 
     Applicants should have knowledge of DOD Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System (JCIDS) processes and experience managing DOD systems development programs.  Knowledge and technical understanding of imaging sensor systems is desirable.  Requires a bachelor's of science degree or equivalent, and ten to twelve years of related (technical environment) experience and a current DOD SECRET security clearance. 
     Interested parties should contact Charles at, 703-405-2712

SM Consulting is seeking senior intelligence analysts with a vast working knowledge on the Middle East, preferably having prepared analysis of Iraq under Saddam Hussein and Iraq in the post-Saddam Hussein period.  You will be responsible for drafting “integrated, holistic, prescriptive analysis on Iraq for senior policymakers”  (read SECDEF, JCS, General Clapper, General Maples and principals at the White House, NSC, and the Intelligence Community…).  Candidates “will also be directing research on Iraq by more junior teams of DIA Iraq analysts.”  The work will be physically located at the Pentagon. 

Candidates should have worked at least at the GG-15 (equivalent to GS-15) or O-6 level.  “Candidates should be SIO’s with broad experience preparing analysis of Iraqi tribal issues, the Iraqi military, Iraq’s economy and finance issues, counterterrorism issues, etc…”  At DIA, SIO stands for Senior Intelligence Officer and each key subject area or country/region of critical importance will have an SIO assigned.   Acceptable candidates may also have an academic background focused on Iraq or Middle Eastern Studies.

The clearance requirement is a TS/SCI.  The salary for this position is at a range of $130,000 to $155,000 based on relevant experience.

To apply for this position please contact Jeff Parkes at 703-319-9030 and submit your resume and clearance status to

Coming Events


Wednesday, 7 November 2007; 7-10 pm - Washington, DC - An Evening with Eric O'Neill, former FBI, at the International Spy Museum. No Breach in protocol allowed. What if you were assigned to watch the most damaging spy in U.S. history? What if it was up to you to capture his personal electronic memo book? What if they made a movie out of your story? That’s exactly what happened to Eric O’Neill. As a young operative in the FBI, O’Neill was put into position as Robert Hanssen’s assistant. The story of that brief assignment and Hanssen’s capture and arrest was the inspiration for the recent film Breach. Now it’s your chance to dine and debrief with O’Neill. Be one of only 18 guests at Zola for a three-course meal where you’ll hear the inside story of the intense time O’Neill spent attempting to deceive the ultimate deceiver. Special guest Juliana O’Neill will shed light on her own stressful involvement in the events of February 2001. CIA clandestine service veteran, International Spy Museum Executive Director, Peter Earnest, will host this unique evening. Please call 202.654.0930 or write to register or with special dietary needs. Tickets: $220

8 November 2007 - Los Angeles, CA - The AFIO Los Angeles Chapter hosts organizational meeting from 7:30 p.m. to 9:30 p.m. at Westwood College, 3250 Wilshire Blvd. 4th Floor Room 494, Los Angeles, CA 90010 (cross street New Hampshire, one block east of Vermont.) parking is located in the building (parking entrance on New Hampshire Blvd.). Provide and share information and strategies for local chapter; discuss AFIO educational issues; make recommendations on future programs, and long term goals.
Vincent Autiero at

8 November 2007 - San Francisco, CA - Jim Quesada Chapter. Speaker: TBD. Topic: Update on Homeland Security. Backup speaker: Lt. Colonel Roger S. Dong, USA (Retired). Topic: Dr. Chien Hsieh-sen, the Aeronautical Engineer who built China’s ballistic missile system and nuclear weapons. The meeting will be held at United Irish Cultural Center, 2700 45th Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94116 (between Sloat and Wawona). 11:30 AM no host cocktails; noon - luncheon. $25 member rate with advance reservation; $35 non-member rate or at door. E-mail RSVP to Mariko Kawaguchi no later than 5 PM 10/25/07: or send a check to P.O. Box 117578 Burlingame, CA 94011 with menu choice (roast cross ribs of beef bordelaise or filet of sole amandine). Call Mary Lou Anderson (415) 332-6440 for questions/phone RSVP.

9 November 2007, 9:30 a.m. - Arlington, VA - ACICV Annual Day of Remembrance. The Army Counterintelligence Corps Veterans association will hold their 2007 annual Day of Remembrance at Fort Myer and Arlington National Cemetery. This Day honors former members, supporters and friends of Army Counterintelligence of whose death ACICV has learned since the 2006 Day of Remembrance. Attendees will meet at 0930 at Spates Community Center, McNair Road, Fort Myer for group transportation to the Tomb of the Unknowns for a Wreath Laying Ceremony at 1015. Following the Ceremony attendees will return to Spates Community Center for the ACICV Memorial Service and Luncheon. For specific information please contact Mrs Elly Burton, Ph: 703-591-3848, or by e-mail to

Wednesday, 14 November 2007 - 6:00 PM - 8:00 PM - Arlington, VA - The SCIP Greater Washington Chapter Meets to discuss War Gaming: The Key to Competitive Victory. The Society of Competitive Intelligence Professionals discusses War Gaming ... a process by which your department can take a leadership role in defining company strategy and tactics. This transforms the Competitive Intelligence/Market Research department from being a provider of information to a facilitator gathering and using information. With a seat at the table with senior management formulating strategy and tactics, Competitive Intelligence/Market Research departments will be better positioned to fulfill their organizational mission. A War Game exercise is a facilitated session designed to simulate potential competitor actions (or reactions) in order to identify potential threats or opportunities for your company. War Games use cross-functional teams from across the organization to help diagnosis situations, predict competitor’s actions, and formulate responses. War Gaming therefore is a great tool for any company to use in order to ensure it is fully prepared for potential market or competitive event. Location Tivoli Restaurant, 1700 N. Moore Street, Arlington, VA. Contact Information - August Jackson, Greater Washington Chapter Chair, email: , 703.989.9588. Dionedra Dorsey, SCIP Chapter Relations Coordinator, email: , 703.739.0696 x111. Or visit:

Thursday, 15 November 2007 - Colorado Springs, CO - AFIO Rocky Mountain Chapter holds luncheon meeting on Terrorists in Colorado. The chapter meets at the Falcon Room of the Air Force Academy, starting at 11:30 am. Price: $10.00 payable at the door. Our speaker is Warren Gerig, a new AFIO member. Warren will talk about a well known major terrorist and how their lives crossed in four different countries.Yet, they never met each other and today the terrorist lives 60 miles from Warren and The Air Force Academy. Reservations to Dick Durham by November 12, 2007 at or call him at Telephone: (719) 488-2884

17 November 07 - Kennebunk, ME - the AFIO Maine Chapter hosts Jeffrey H. Norwitz, Special Agent of the Naval Criminal Investigative Service and Professor of National Security Studies at the U. S. Naval War College.Norwitz will speak on "Spy Catching and Tales of Counterintelligence" will take us from the American Revolution to the present time. Special Agent Norwitz holds a degree in Criminal Justice from Eastern Kentucky University and a Masters in National Security and Strategic Studies from the U. S. Naval War College. He has written for a number of prestigious journals and frequently lectures at some of the nation's most influential academic institutions as well as overseas to foreign navy and military audiences. He is the recipient of numerous awards in the fields of teaching and public service and currently holds the John Nicholas Brown Academic Chair of Counterterrorism at the Naval War College. The meeting will be held at 2:00 p.m. at the Kennebunk Free Library, 112 Main St., Kennebunk, and is open to the public.  Information at 207-985-2392

21 November 2007 - Phoenix, AZ - The Arizona AFIO Chapter will hold its November meeting at the Hilton Garden Inn, located one block West of Central Avenue on Clarendon and one block South of Indian School Road in Phoenix at 11:30 AM. The Speaker will be John Zebatto who has 32 years experience in Intelligence and National Security, including high impact intelligence activities related to traditional and non-traditional challenges, recent work on terrorism, counter intelligence, weapons of mass destruction involving direct interaction with the senior levels of the U.S. government. Mr. Zebatto served in the Directorate of Intelligence from 1073-1986, and in the Directorate of Operations from 1986-2003 with the CIA. He will speak on a Counter Intelligence Officer's view of Intelligence and the case against Saddam Hassein. He gained his experience while he was temporarily assigned to the National Intelligence Council where he had the unusual task of assessing the impact of our sources and methods in using intelligence publicly in the Administration's "Case Against Saddam Hussein." For information or to register please call Bill Williams at (602) 944-2451 or

Wednesday, 28 November 2007; 6:30 pm - Washington, DC - Robert Hanssen: Colleague, Friend, and Traitor. Former senior FBI official David Major at the International Spy Museum. “One might propose that I am either insanely brave or quite insane.” —Robert Hanssen, November 2000 With the recent release of Breach, Robert Hanssen is once again in the public eye and the topic of much discussion. Who was the real man who betrayed his country and may be the worst spy in U.S. history? David G. Major knows. Major worked with Hanssen for 14 years at the Bureau. He was the FBI executive supervisor in Hanssen’s chain-of-command for three years and considered him a fellow employee and friend for over two decades. Major, retired FBI supervisory special agent, founder of the Centre for Counterintelligence and Security Studies, and International Spy Museum board of directors member, provides a glimpse into the real personality and psychology of one of the most damaging spies in U.S. history. He will explore why Hanssen’s betrayal was so difficult to uncover, his own theories on what motivated the spy, his perspective on Breach, and the status of U.S. counterintelligence in the wake of this profoundly important spy case. Tickets: $23 REGISTER:

28 - 30 November - Rome, Italy - International Conference, "The Battle for Hearts and Minds: Soft Power in the Struggle against Global Jihadism" at the Matteo Ricci conference center of the Pontifical Gregorian University (Piazza della Pilotta, 4 , Rome, Italy).  
Conference speakers will include experts on the subject of terrorism, radical Islamism and strategic intelligence, from Europe, the United States, Russia, the Middle East and the Vatican.  There is no entrance fee.  For further information please contact Diego Cazzin or prof. Sergio Germani, academic director of the conference ( . To register please contact Mr. Francesco D'Arrigo (

Friday, 30 November 2007; 12 noon – 1 pm - Washington, DC - Chief of Station, Congo - Station Chief Larry Devlin at the International Spy Museum. As station chief in the Congo, Larry Devlin fought the Cold War in one of its hottest arenas. On 1 July 1960, the Congo declared independence from Belgium; and on 5 July, the army mutinied and governmental authority collapsed. When Devlin arrived five days later he found himself in the heart of Africa, fighting for the future of perhaps the most strategically influential country in the continent, its borders shared with eight other nations. In his memoir, Chief of Station, Congo, Devlin describes his life as a master spy in Africa, one whose assignment to assassinate political leader Patrice Lumumba (which he didn’t carry out) is back in the news with the June release by the CIA of the “family jewels.” Free! No registration required! Join the author for an informal chat and book signing.

Saturday, 1 December 2007, 11 am to 3 pm - Gainesville, FL - The North Florida AFIO Chapter holds its meeting in the Faculty Dining Room (Room BBB) of Bruton-Geer Hall at the University of Florida Levin College of Law. Maj Gen David E. Kratzer, USAR (ret.) has been invited. He was a very well-received speaker in March 2004, talking at length about "The Drive to Baghdad" in Operation Iraqi Freedom, during which he was the logistics commander with over 40,000 troops in a myriad of support roles reporting to him, but now 3 1/2 years later and retired he has a slightly different perspective on our progress and situation there, which is most insightful and thought provoking -- there should be some spirited discussion after this one. For further information write Vince Carnes at

4 - 5 December 2007, 7:30 am - 5 pm - Washington, DC - Blackwater Worldwide hosts "Public/Private Partnership in Peacekeeping" Conference.This theme will look at those areas where the military and government can use private sector expertise to successfully accomplish security and reconstruction operations. To most effectively and efficiently accomplish stability and reconstruction missions requires using the most appropriate skill sets. Frequently those skill sets reside in the private sector. To best use the taxpayer’s resources may require leveraging the private sector. Event being held at Ronald Reagan Bldg & International Trade Center, 1300 Pennsylvania Ave NW Washington, DC 20004, Business Attire. Fees: Military or Government $295.00; Industry $395.00.
Registration or more info: or write to

Friday, 4 January 2008, 5:30 - 9 pm - New York, NY - AFIO NY Metro Chapter hosts Prof. Arthur Hulnick, former CIA, on "Intelligence Reform: Fix, Fizzle or Flop?" Location: Club Quarters, 40 W 45 St. More information available from



22-23 February 2008 - Baltimore, MD - 3rd International Conference on ETHICS IN THE INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY, Sponsored by:INTERNATIONAL INTELLIGENCE ETHICS ASSOCIATION and THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY, School of Education, Division of Public Safety Leadership. Intelligence ethics is an emerging field without established principles for resolving the ethical problems confronting the intelligence community. Intelligence work has no theory analogous to "just war" theory in military ethics. Consequently, a focus of this conference is to provide a forum in which the application of ethical theories to intelligence problems can be discussed and a theory of “just intelligence” developed. This conference is co-sponsored by The International Intelligence Ethics Association and Johns Hopkins University, School of Education, Division of Public Leadership.
The conference will be held at The Johns Hopkins University-Mt. Washington Conference Center, in Baltimore, Maryland. The conference is open to all relevant disciplines, including political science, history, law enforcement, philosophy, international relations, theology, and to representatives of all legitimate stake-holders in intelligence ethics, including government, the press, and non-governmental organizations.
The 2-day conference begins on Friday morning, February 22nd and ends on Saturday afternoon, February 23, 2008. Attendees will be provided all meals during this time. The conference will consist of academic papers and panels, in a traditional lecture format with audience discussion. Privacy Policy: All presentations and discussions are on a “not for attribution” basis. No recording devices (cameras, audio recorders, etc.) that can capture images and sound are permitted.
A sample of the topics at the conference include:
• Torture & Ticking Time-Bombs: Empirical Research Regarding Moral Judgments
• Can Just War Theory Contribute to a Normative Framework for Intelligence Ethics? National Security vs. Social Security
• The Utility And Practicality Of A Code Of Ethics Specifically Addressing The Officer-Agent Relationship (i.e., HUMINT) And Could Such A Code Be Meaningful Or Useful In Real Operational Settings?
• A Professional Ethics Review Board for the Intelligence Community: Is it possible?
• Accountability vs. Politicalization: An Ethical Difference - With Case Studies
• Developing a Moral Framework for Making Complex Ethical Judgments For the Intelligence Professional
• Individual Rights vs. Collective Rights: A Moral Dilemma In Intelligence During National Emergency Situations?
Conference Location: Mt. Washington Conference Center, 5801 Smith Avenue, Baltimore, Maryland 21209; Information/Directions:
Registration till December 31, 2007 - Registration fee covers 3 meals on Friday and 2 meals on Saturday
$ 370 Conference Registration. Late Registration after January 1, 2008 Registration fee covers 3 meals on Friday and 2 meals on Saturday $ 395 Conference Registration
A limited number of suites are available at the conference center Suites, $150.00 a day [check in is Thursday, Tax and gratuities included] Mail To : International Intelligence Ethics Association (IIEA), P.O. Box 23053, Washington, D.C. 20026. Further information available from:

March 26-28, 2008 - The 5th Raleigh Spy Conference, at the NC Museum of History - Not to miss. CIA's Unsolved Mysteries: The Nosenko Defection, Double Agents and Angleton's Wilderness of Mirrors features top experts in counterintelligence to discuss unresolved issues from the Cold War:  The former chief of CIA's Soviet bloc counterintelligence division -- Tennent Bagley -- will defend his controversial new book on KGB defector Yuri Nosenko, with its mysterious connections to Lee Harvey Oswald and John F. Kennedy that kicked off 40 years of unresolved internal strife at CIA. 
Dave Robarge, Chief Historian for CIA and expert on infamous counterintelligence chief James Angleton, will discuss the controversy created by the former chief of counterintelligence for the Agency by his obsessive hunt for a Soviet mole. 
Brian Kelley, the wrong man in the Robert Hanssen spy case - and former counterintelligence officer for CIA, will use examples of defectors and double agents he uses as case models for courses he teaches to train espionage agents. 
Jerry Schecter, former correspondent for Time magazine in Moscow during the Cold War, and respected expert and author of books on Cold War espionage, was on hand to witness for the press the important cases of defectors and double agents in the heat of the Cold War. 
David Ignatius, former foreign editor - now columnist for the Washington Post - and author of espionage fiction, is respected in the "community" for his insights on the impact of defectors and double agents on the craft of espionage. 
Conference Costs: General Public: $250.00 Seniors: $175.00 AFIO Members, Teachers, Intelligence, Students, Military: only $145.00!
Early registration available: Contact Jennifer Hadra at 919-831-0999 or More information and frequent updates at:

14 August 2008 - 23 August 2008 - UK to Russia - A Cold War Summit: From Cambridge To Moscow - A special trip organized and hosted by AFIO Members Dan Mulvenna and Nigel West. Purpose: To explore the history of the Cold War and its manifestations; to examine British and American-Russian relationships from 1945 to 1991; to delve into recent events that suggest the Cold War has new dimensions in Vladimir Putin’s Russia, and to follow the path of the infamous Cambridge Five in England and Russia.
The price of oil had dropped, starving the Kremlin of the funds it desperately needed to keep pace in the arms race against the United States. Then all it took was the nudge of Gorbachev’s perestroika and the dominoes began to fall: Afghanistan, Poland, Czechoslovakia and, finally, the Berlin Wall itself. Twenty years later and the price of oil is at an all-time high, and Russia has reemerged as a global superpower, albeit with a new ideology — capitalism. Flush with the confidence of petrodollars, the Kremlin is rattling its saber in Europe once again. And a former Russian spy, Alexander Litvinenko, dies in a London hospital, mysteriously poisoned by a fatal dose of radiation.
- Study Leaders, Nigel West — author of VENONA and other respected books on security, intelligence and espionage — and counterintelligence expert Dan Mulvenna, take you behind the curtain of Cold War intelligence and espionage.
- Discover hidden spy sites in Moscow with a former KGB colonel and Dan Mulvenna, security expert and professor at the Centre for Counterintelligence and Security Studies in Washington.
- Hear about the death of Alexander Litvinenko from a Russian consultant to the BBC’s Panorama program.
- With staff at the Churchill Archives Centre, explore Cold War materials from its collection.
- Enjoy a reception with retired KGB officers in Moscow.
- Go behind the scenes at Bletchley Park, where codebreakers decrypted and interpreted Axis messages and broke the German Enigma Code during World War II.

8 nights; 17 meals; 8 Breakfasts, 3 Lunches, 6 Dinners
$4,950.00 pp Group size limited to 48 or fewer participants

Itinerary: From Cambridge, England, to Moscow, Russia, from the “Cambridge Five” to Gary Powers to the recently murdered Russian spy Alexander Litvinenko, trace the trail of diplomacy and intrigue from the height of the Cold War to the global chess match with Russia today. With privileged access to unrivaled authorities in the fields of espionage and in 1950s Cold War politics, gain an understanding of the foreign policy conducted in public and the intelligence machinations that continue in the shadows. In this one-time program, join important writers and thinkers, including Andrew Lownie, Piers Brendon, Mike Sewell and Richard Aldrich to discuss the ramifications and intricacies of the “war,” as well as commentators Glenmore Trenear-Harvey and Boris Volodarsz, to consider whether the Cold War has recently reemerged in Putin’s Russia. Leading the way is Nigel West. Former member of the House of Commons and author of more than a dozen books on espionage, Nigel is considered the “expert’s expert” on intelligence.

Based at the elegant M�ller Center at Churchill College, Cambridge University, track the “Cambridge Five” — the ring of Soviet spies who passed information to the KGB and who infiltrated the British establishment. Follow in the footsteps of the notorious spies on a walking exploration through Trinity, St John’s and King’s Colleges. Explore Cold War materials in the Churchill Archives Centre, which houses Sir Winston Churchill’s papers, as well as those of Margaret Thatcher and other prominent figures of the 20th century. At Bletchley Park — also known as “Station X” — see one of the Enigma Machines, including the rare “Abwehr G312,” and check out the tales of World War II code-breaking, spies and strategic deception.

Continue the exploration of the Cold War from the other side, in Moscow. A retired senior KGB officer and Dan Mulvenna — professor at Washington’s Centre for Counterintelligence and Security Studies — lead you on an exploration of spy sites throughout the Russian capital. See the graves of Kim Philby, the great British spy, and those of the famous “illegals” Rudolph Abel (Willie Fisher), Konon Molody, known to the West as Gordon Lonsdale, and Ramon Mercader — Trotsky’s assassin. Go behind the scenes to areas not open to the public and learn about the Russian intelligence services and counter-terrorism at the FSB (formerly KGB) Intelligence Museum, located just off Lubyanka Square. Receive “briefings” on the KGB’s view of the Cold War and on several famous Cold War spy cases by former KGB officers who have intimate knowledge of the affairs. Hear from Colonel Oleg Nechiporenko — Lee Harvey Oswald’s first case officer at the Mexico City KGB station. Then meet and mingle with distinguished senior retired KGB officers at an elegant farewell reception.

Please Note: This program will operate only once and has a maximum capacity of 48. Each of two groups of 24 will have its own Group Leader and motorcoach but all participants will attend program events together. To explore or register for this once-in-a-lifetime excursion, visit:


For Additional Events two+ months or greater....view our online Calendar of Events


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