AFIO Weekly Intelligence Notes #41-08 dated 20 October 2008
Thursday, 13 November 2008, 7 pm - 10 pm - Washington, DC - DINNER WITH A SPY: An Evening with Milt Bearden - at Spy Museum
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Section I - INTELLIGENCE HIGHLIGHTS
CIA Tactics Endorsed by White House In Secret Memos. The Bush administration issued a pair of secret memos to the CIA in 2003 and 2004 that explicitly endorsed the agency's use of interrogation techniques such as waterboarding against al-Qaeda suspects - documents prompted by worries among intelligence officials about a possible backlash if details of the program became public.
The classified memos, which have not been previously disclosed, were requested by then-CIA Director George J. Tenet more than a year after the start of the secret interrogations, according to four administration and intelligence officials familiar with the documents. Although Justice Department lawyers, beginning in 2002, had signed off on the agency's interrogation methods, senior CIA officials were troubled that White House policymakers had never endorsed the program in writing.
The memos were the first - and, for years, the only - tangible expressions of the administration's consent for the CIA's use of harsh measures to extract information from captured al-Qaeda leaders, the sources said. As early as the spring of 2002, several White House officials, including then-national security adviser Condoleezza Rice and Vice President Cheney, were given individual briefings by Tenet and his deputies, the officials said. Rice, in a statement to congressional investigators last month, confirmed the briefings and acknowledged that the CIA director had pressed the White House for "policy approval."
The repeated requests for a paper trail reflected growing worries within the CIA that the administration might later distance itself from key decisions about the handling of captured al-Qaeda leaders, former intelligence officials said. The concerns grew more pronounced after the revelations of mistreatment of detainees at the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq, and further still as tensions grew between the administration and its intelligence advisers over the conduct of the Iraq war.
Administration officials confirmed the existence of the memos, but neither they nor former intelligence officers would describe their contents in detail because they remain classified. The sources all spoke on the condition of anonymity because they were not cleared to discuss the events.
The second request from Tenet, in June 2004, reflected growing worries among agency officials who had just witnessed the public outcry over the Abu Ghraib scandal. Officials who held senior posts at the time also spoke of deteriorating relations between the CIA and the White House over the war in Iraq - a rift that prompted some to believe that the agency needed even more explicit proof of the administration's support.
As recently as last month, the administration had never publicly acknowledged that its policymakers knew about the specific techniques, such as waterboarding, that the agency used against high-ranking terrorism suspects. In her unprecedented account to lawmakers last month, Rice, now secretary of state, portrayed the White House as initially uneasy about a controversial CIA plan for interrogating top al-Qaeda suspects.
In interviews, the officials recounted a series of private briefings about the program with members of the administration's security team, including Rice and Cheney, followed by more formal meetings before a larger group including then-Attorney General John D. Ashcroft, then-White House counsel Alberto R. Gonzales and then-Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld. None of the officials recalled President Bush being present at any of the discussions.
Several of the key meetings have been previously described in news articles and books, but Rice last month became the first Cabinet-level official to publicly confirm the White House's awareness of the program in its earliest phases. In written responses to questions from the Senate Armed Services Committee, Rice said Tenet's description of the agency's interrogation methods prompted her to investigate further to see whether the program violated U.S. laws or international treaties, according to her written responses, dated Sept. 12 and released late last month.
Current and former intelligence officials familiar with the briefings described Tenet as supportive of enhanced interrogation techniques, which the officials said were developed by CIA officers after the agency's first high-level captive, al-Qaeda operative Zayn al-Abidin Muhammed Hussein, better known as Abu Zubaida, refused to cooperate with interrogators. [Warrick&Tate/WashingtonPost/15October2008]
National Security at Issue in Italian CIA Trial. An Italian kidnapping trial linked to the CIA's extraordinary rendition program was suspended on 15 October when a witness refused to answer a question because it would harm Italy's national security.
The judge must now decide whether to compel the witness to respond, or whether doing so will compromise national security.
The issue has been at the center of the trial since its beginning, with lawyers for Italian agents involved arguing they cannot mount an adequate defense without treading on territory that might be considered classified, and prosecutors saying that the alleged kidnapping by U.S. and Italian security agents was illegal and therefore cannot be considered classified.
The Constitutional Court has been called on to rule on what evidence is admissible in the case, considering the issue of classified documents and national security, but so far has failed to do so. The judge at one point halted the trial for months to wait for the ruling, only to restart the trial again when there were repeated delays.
Twenty-six Americans, most of them CIA agents, and five Italian intelligence operatives are charged with kidnapping an Egyptian cleric in 2003, who was then allegedly transported to Egypt where he claims he was tortured.
The trial, the first to involve the CIA extraordinary renditions program, has been a sore spot in relations between the United States and Italy. None of the CIA agents charged have appeared in court and their court-appointed lawyers have had no contact with them - indeed, many are known only by aliases. The CIA has declined to comment on the case. [InternationalHeraldTribune/15October2008]
Iran's Nukes Getting Russian Help. Just as the Kremlin is releasing new confirmation it has tested two intercontinental ballistic missiles that "perfectly hit their targets," officers for Britain's MI6 intelligence service say a key Russian scientist working on the missile program also has helped Iran in its weapons development.
The Kremlin confirmation came last weekend.
Intelligence agents in Moscow and Tehran confirmed the Russian rocket scientist helped Iran design advanced detonators whose "only possible use would be in a nuclear weapon," stated John Scarlett, the head of MI6, in a report to Britain's Joint Intelligence Committee.
The revelation is expected to deepen the hostility between Moscow and the West.
The evidence of the scientist's involvement was contained in the latest document obtained by deep cover MI6 officers in Tehran.
The document has been passed on by MI6 to the International Atomic Energy Agency, headquartered in Vienna. It is the 19th official document obtained by the Secret Intelligence Service detailing Iran's nuclear program. The collection carries the highest security classification.
The documents clearly indicate that, with Russian help, Iran is in advanced stages of building nuclear weapons. [WorldNetDaily/14October2008]
Sex, Drugs and Facelifts: Former Spy Chief Lifts Lid on French Elite. The drug-taking habits, sexual appetites and even the facelifts of some of France's most senior politicians were uncovered when the secret notes of a former intelligence chief were leaked to the press.
Described by Le Point, the magazine which published the papers, as a "voyage under the skirts of the Republic", the diaries of Yves Bertrand delve deep into private lives of France's political elite.
Mr. Bertrand, 64, a confidante of the former president, Jacques Chirac, was sacked by President Nicolas Sarkozy when he dismantled the Renseignements G�n�raux (RG) police intelligence service.
His notes, compiled between 1998 and 2003, suggest that the RG's notorious reputation as a tool for French presidents to keep tabs on and eliminate rivals was fully deserved.
Nothing escaped the Bertrand radar: from a former minister whom he alleged failed to pay his bill in a top Parisian hotel to a cabinet minister's "Polish mistress". Other former ministers were labeled "gay", "swinger" and "sex and cocaine-mad".
His loyalty lay with Mr. Chirac - president from 1995 to 2007. Mr. Chirac, 74, is mentioned only rarely, including a 2003 entry that says: "Chirac had a facelift in Canada." Responding to the leaked notes, Mr. Bertrand said: "My words shouldn't be taken as gospel just because I write this or that about someone. These notebooks, which are of a private nature, should be considered as rough drafts". [Samuel/Telegraph/14October2008]
Turkey to Combine All Intelligence Efforts in Fight Against PKK Terror. Turkey's Higher Board of Counter-Terrorism decided Tuesday to create a new division under the umbrella of the Interior Ministry, after a six hour-long meeting.
The new division would make strategic planning in the fight against the terror, lead intelligence sharing between security forces and frequently hold meetings.
The division, which is expected to be chaired by a high-level civilian bureaucrat, an undersecretary or a deputy undersecretary, would include high-level executives from the General Staff, gendarmerie, National Intelligence Organization (MIT) and the police department. [Hurriyet/15October2008]
Spy Code and Quantum Physics to Tackle Credit Card Fraud. A secret code used by spies during the Cold War has been combined with modern physics to create a new way of protecting consumers against credit card fraud.
Computer scientists based at Hewlett-Packard's research laboratories in Bristol have used quantum physics, the study of the bizarre way extremely small particles behave, in a bid to make credit card transactions safer.
They have combined this complex area of science with a form of encryption, known as the one-time pad that was invented in 1917 and was used extensively by KGB spies during the Cold War to send secret messages.
They hope that their approach will allow consumers to replace the myriad of pin numbers and passwords they have to remember with a device that will generate a new four digit number for them every time they need to carry out a transaction.
The system, dubbed "Qisa" by the researchers, generates a random number that is given to both the consumer and the organization receiving the payment. If these numbers match then the payment will go through. For each new transaction a new number is generated.
During the Cold War, KGB spies used lists of random numbers printed on silk to encode messages they sent back to their headquarters, where an identical set of numbers could be used to decode the message.
In electronic transactions, however, it is almost impossible to ensure that the random numbers used have not been seen by anyone else such as a hacker, who could then impersonate the consumer.
The HP scientists, however, have used a quirk in quantum physics to make the process secure and open up the possibility of one-time pads being used in credit card transactions.
In the quantum world, a particle can be in two different states at the same time - either as a particle or as a wave of radiation. Information can be encoded in particles by using them like tiny switches that can be either "on" or "off".
These particles, however, change state when observed, due to the unusual properties that particles have when they are so small. This mind-boggling concept allows scientists to be able to tell if someone is eavesdropping on the information being sent.
The team hope their system will be adopted by credit card firms and banks within the next 10 years. Consumers would be able to regularly "top up" their list of random numbers, which could be stored on their mobile phone.
The ATM machine would share the numbers with the consumers chosen organisation, like a bank or credit card firm, and for each transaction they would use a different number from the list until they run out and need to top up again. [Gray/Telegraph/19October2008]
Canadian Suspected of Being Double Agent Arrested in Germany. An Iranian-Canadian businessman who spied on Iran for Germany has been arrested in Frankfurt on suspicion of using his companies to support Iran's missile program.
The 61-year-old man, identified only by his code name, "Sinbad," holds dual Canadian and Iranian citizenship and spied for the German foreign intelligence service, the Bundesnachrichtendienst (BND), for more than a decade.
With the knowledge of the BND, the man set up a company in Canada and another in Germany, which helped provide him with a cover for extensive world travel, it says.
But he reportedly failed to tell the agency he was using one of the companies to allegedly ship machinery to an Iranian company blacklisted by Berlin on suspicions it was involved in Iran's ballistic missile program. The magazine does not identify which of the two companies was allegedly involved, though his detention by authorities suggests it was the German firm.
At least two shipments over the past year are believed to have been destined for Iran's Shahab rocket program, according to Germany's federal prosecutor's office. The rockets have an estimated range of 1,300 to 1,600 kilometres and could reach Israel. There are fears they also could someday be fitted with nuclear warheads.
The machinery was not identified, other than that it can be used for both military and civilian applications.
Prior to his Oct. 5 arrest at Frankfurt Airport, the country's top intelligence officials and its chief federal prosecutor clashed over what to do with the wayward spy.
Sinbad was the BND's most valued agent in Iran - few western agents have been able to penetrate the Iranian government - and the agency argued he should not be arrested under Germany's strict armament export controls.
But German law only allows for exceptions in such cases if national security law, not export control law, is violated.
Sinbad, according to the magazine, now faces charges and a potential prison term.
His intelligence reports to the Germans were delivered to the foreign office and for years served as important building blocks for the Iran policy of the German government. On a number of occasions, the information from the spy was directly incorporated into the situation analyses of Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier.
Sinbad's information appeared to come from the inner sanctum of the Tehran state apparatus and its ministries.
At times, he would hand over pictures of tunnel-boring machinery, at other times details of secret storage facilities. He would also provide freshly minted papers on progress in the development of delivery systems for nuclear warheads, it reported.
He was "one of our highest-value sources in the entire area of proliferation," an unidentified government official is quoted as saying.
The material he offered was so rich, Germany's secret service at least twice investigated suspicions that their Iranian counterparts might be feeding the West manipulated material through Sinbad. In return for the information, and the risks he took, the BND reportedly paid him about $1.6 million.
Meanwhile, what started as a routine government financial audit of the businessman's books - those officials were unaware of his work for the BND - soon mushroomed into a full investigation by the customs criminal division, or ZKA. It soon learned of his BND work, but continued to pursue the case. [MacLeod/Canwest/16October2008]
CIA's Loss of Top Spies 'Catastrophic,' Says Agency Veteran. Only a few months ago, Sam Faddis was running a CIA unit charged with preventing terrorists from getting nuclear, chemical and biological weapons.
Today, only 50, the equivalent of a full colonel at the top of his game, he has quit.
Scores more like him, Faddis says, intelligence officers with years of working the back alleys of the world, have walked away from the CIA's Operations Directorate at the top of their careers, at a time when the agency needs their skills the most.
The directorate is losing "25 or 30 chiefs of station" - the top CIA representative in a country or major city - "or their equivalent" at headquarters, every six months, Faddis estimates.
That's out of an estimated thousand or fewer case officers - the men and women who recruit and manage spies - worldwide.
"It's getting to the point where we just don't have any experience on the ground," Faddis maintained during several hours of conversation over the past two weeks.
The CIA has said that money is luring away its best old hands. And it's true that a large number come back as private contractors, doing virtually the same jobs at twice the pay.
Some say there are more contractors filling desk in the directorate now than career officers.
But many don't return, Faddis maintains. And, theoretically, he and other operations veterans say, contractors can't take leadership positions that have been emptied.
The CIA flatly denies there's a hemorrhage of senior personnel.
In any event, it's not the money sending them into retirement, the veteran officers I've been talking to say.
It's the directorate's management, which they maintain rewards sycophants at headquarters over operatives who have been "carrying out aggressive operations in dangerous places," as Faddis put it.
Virtually none of the team chiefs and case officers who led the first CIA units into Afghanistan and Iraq remain with the agency, said Faddis, who recently authored a memoir, "Operation Hotel California: The Clandestine War Inside Iraq."
It's because the DO is plagued by a culture of "timidity and risk aversion," Faddis said.
Gary Berntsen, a former station chief who led one of the first CIA teams into Afghanistan after 9/11, agrees. He left in disgust over management.
In a new book, "Human Intelligence, Counterterrorism & National Leadership," Berntsen writes that the agency's personnel problems predated the Bush administration, but the president waited too long to double the size of the Operations Directorate.
According to some accounts, the CIA's Predator drones and other new technologies are making up for the shortage of spies in the field. The veterans would take issue with that, but they also remind that the spy agency has other yawning missions: China and Russia, for starters.
The spy agency is "bleeding out" with the mass departure of veterans who learned how to spy the hard way, on the streets of hostile foreign environments, Faddis says. "There's not enough people on the ground with any experience."
His hair turning silver, but still youthful looking from days spent skippering his boat in the Chesapeake, Faddis says, "to me the real tragedy is there's just a whole bunch of guys floating around here who are not in the building, but should be." [Stein/cqpolitics/18October2008]
Mystery Surrounds CIA Chief's Lebanon Trip. Michael Hayden arrived in Beirut on October 16th for a visit that gained little but controversial media attention.
Hayden arrived in the Lebanese capital for talks with top Lebanese officials on security cooperation against regional and international terror, reported As-Safir daily, a local media outlet.
"Over the past few years prominent security officials, including the heads of Interpol and FBI, have visited the country on propaganda trips meant to enhance cooperation in security matters," claims Elnashra.com, a local website.
"Hayden's trip, however, does not fall under the security and intelligence category," it continues.
"According to informed sources Hayden's trip to the region is aimed at gathering the most possible amount of intelligence in the least possible amount of time, as most foreign intelligence services have an established presence in the county," the website adds.
"Lebanon's geographic position between Syria and Israel is an important factor as the US seeks to defend the security of Israel at any cost." [PressTv/19October2008]
Government Faces Fight From Within for Spy Database. Jacqui Smith, the home secretary, faces a revolt from her senior officials over plans to build a central database holding information on every telephone call, e-mail and internet visit made in the UK.
A "significant body of Home Office officials dealing with serious and organized crime" are privately lobbying against the plans, a leaked memo has revealed.
They believe the proposals are "impractical, disproportionate, politically unattractive and possibly unlawful from a human rights perspective", the memo says.
Their stance puts them at loggerheads with the spy-masters at GCHQ, the government's eavesdropping centre in Cheltenham, who have been driving through the plans.
The Home Office rebels appear to have forced Smith to stall plans to announce a bill in the Queen's speech authorizing the database. She has instead ordered her officials to review the proposals.
This weekend a top law enforcement body further dented the government's case for the database. Jack Wraith, of the data communications group of the Association of Chief Police Officers, described the plans as "mission creep". He said there was an "inherent fear" of the data falling into the wrong hands.
Smith is already studying less explosive but equally effective alternatives. One option involves a system based on sending automated requests to databases already held by telephone and internet firms.
Privacy campaigners believe the proposals form part of a "pentagon" of five huge databases, all linked together in real time to create the ultimate surveillance society.
This would include compulsory registration of all Britain's 72m mobile phones, more than 40m of which are prepaid. Terrorists and criminals prefer to hide behind the anonymity of prepaid phones, so a communications database needs to include accurate details of prepaid subscriber details. [TimesOnline/19October2008]
Disclosure Angers Security Chiefs. Chiefs of the British intelligence Services are infuriated the Home Office's counter-terrorism minister, Lord West, the former head of the Royal Navy, publicly disclosed that the MI5 and MI6 agencies are tracking "another great terrorist plot building up again."
The claim was made in the House of Lords debate over new terrorism powers last week.
Both MI6 chief John Scarlett and Jonathan Evans, director of MI5, have expressed their "deep concern" that Lord West could have wrecked the biggest anti-terrorist operation the two services, together with the Government Communications Headquarters and the Scotland Yard Anti-Terrorism Command, have mounted since the plot to blow up seven American airliners in 2006.
More than 200 intelligence officers have been working, many in deep cover, to track the al-Qaida terrorist plot Lord West revealed is "building up again."
Lord West said in a speech to his fellow peers: "We have done a great deal to protect ourselves and to look after our water supplies, our resilience, underground trains, our preparedness and communications. We have done all the things that we need to do, but the threat is building and the complex plots are building."
The specific references to water supplies, underground trains and communications have enraged the intelligence chiefs. Worse, the gaffe-prone Sea Lord spoke without clearing his speech with Home Secretary Jacqui Smith or any other senior government minister.
James Bond Tips Revealed by Former Spy Harry Ferguson. Secret Agent Harry Ferguson outlined the tricks of the trade at the unveiling of a waxwork model of 007 actor Daniel Craig.
Mr. Ferguson, who presented the BBC2 series Spy and has written books describing his experiences, was at the new exhibition at London's Madame Tussaud's to mark the latest Bond film Quantum of Solace. The film, also starring Dame Judi Dench, is out on 31 October.
He listed seven skills a spy would need to succeed in the world of espionage.
Resourcefulness: "It might surprise people, but unfortunately in real life our gadgets often don't work when we need them and so you have to adapt."
Observation: "You have to understand what you see, like if someone has you under surveillance or if you spot a face you saw in a briefing a few months earlier."
Empathy: "People must have trust in you, and you must protect them."
Weapon skills: "In the past agents did not really have to use arms, but with the work now in Iraq and Afghanistan that has changed."
Coolness: "The ability to stay unshaken involves keeping your level of eye contact normal and retaining a relaxed body posture."
Social skills: "You have to move in playboy circles, and go to Monte Carlo and drive a flash car and be able to carry it off like a natural.
Languages: "The more easily you can slip intro a foreign country without drawing attention, the better."
Mr. Ferguson recently said real-life spies were much less reliant on gadgets than James Bond. "Spies hate gadgets," he said. "Imagine you're going to penetrate an al-Qaeda cell: if they search you and find a camera in your shoe, you're finished. If I wanted to go and photograph an Iranian nuclear installation, the first thing I would do is take the biggest camera I could find - go as a journalist or a tourist. If I'm caught, I can say: 'Sorry, I didn't realize I wasn't allowed to photograph it.'
"If we're going to use gadgets, a lot of the stuff you can get in shops will do. If you plant a commercially made bug and it's found, it's not tied to a government organisation. The last resort would be a gadget made by the technical sections at MI6." [James/Telegraph/17October2008]
Section II - CONTEXT & PRECEDENCE
Our Man in
Tbilisi. On Aug. 8, 1993, a single bullet to the head killed Freddie Woodruff, the Central Intelligence Agency's station chief in Georgia. Within hours, police had a culprit - a vodka-soaked village bumpkin. A tidy explanation quickly followed: It was a tragic accident.
U.S. diplomats hailed Georgia's swift work, and both countries breathed a sigh of relief. A killing that threatened to disrupt a push by Washington into former Soviet lands fell on the shoulders of a lone drunk, Anzor Sharmaidze.
Convicted of murder and still in jail, Mr. Sharmaidze is now sick, emaciated and angry. He says he was framed and says he is innocent.
The bullet that killed Mr. Woodruff, 15 years to the day before Russia's recent military thrust into Georgia, was never found. Evidence casting doubt on the official story wasn't presented at Mr. Sharmaidze's trial. Key witnesses have now retracted their testimony, saying they were beaten and forced to finger Mr. Sharmaidze.
If Mr. Sharmaidze didn't do it, though, who did? Those who don't buy the official explanation suspect that the answer lies in the spy games that played out on Russia's frontier following the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union. Mr. Woodruff was an early actor in a dangerous drama. American spies were moving into newborn nations previously dominated by Soviet intelligence. Russia's security apparatus, resentful and demoralized, was in turmoil, its nominal loyalty to a pro-Western course set by President Boris Yeltsin shredded by hard-line spooks and generals who viewed the Americans as a menace.
Mr. Woodruff's Tbilisi was a den of intrigue. It had a big Russian military base and was awash with former and not-so-former Soviet agents. Shortly before Mr. Woodruff was shot, veteran CIA officer Aldrich Ames - who would soon be unmasked as a KGB mole - visited him on agency business.
Recent events show that, far from fading, the geopolitical struggles in the Caucasus have only escalated. In August, Moscow's efforts to reassert its influence under Vladimir Putin brought Russian tanks and troops to within 20 miles of Tbilisi.
A handful of Americans, including Mr. Woodruff's sister and a dogged Texas lawyer, remain determined to get to the bottom of Mr. Woodruff's death. "I'm not crazy, but I'm very stubborn," said Houston attorney Michael Pullara, during a recent trip to Tbilisi, his ninth.
Georgian authorities, prodded by Mr. Pullara, have re-interviewed witnesses. The Federal Bureau of Investigation, which has sent a slew of agents to Tbilisi over the years to dig into Mr. Woodruff's murder, says its own investigation is still "pending" but declined to give details.
James Woolsey, who as head of the CIA flew to Tbilisi to pick up Mr. Woodruff's body, says he's skeptical of conspiracy theories about his agent's death. But "in that part of the world," he notes, "it is impossible to say anything is beyond the possible."
The end of the Soviet empire in 1991 opened up exciting but treacherous vistas for America's spies. It also strained the CIA's thin bench of capable overseas operatives. The first American sent to Georgia by the CIA quit and went home. The agency picked Mr. Woodruff, a former Bible major from Searcy, Ark., to replace him. Mr. Woodruff spoke some Russian, and had served previously in Leningrad, Turkey, Ethiopia and Kazakhstan.
Camouflaged as a regional-affairs officer at the U.S. embassy in Tbilisi, Mr. Woodruff took charge of the CIA's operations in Georgia. These included programs to train the bodyguards of the country's leader, Eduard Shevardnadze, and a small but well-armed elite unit called Omega - America's answer to a Russian-trained force called Alpha.
Mr. Woodruff got on well with the locals. He liked to drink and "was very emotional like Georgians," says Eldar Gogoladze, a veteran Soviet security officer who was the head of Mr. Shevardnadze's security detail. He was "one of the last cowboy spooks" and loved "wild, weird parties," says Thomas Goltz, an American expert on the Caucasus and a friend of Mr. Woodruff.
By the summer of 1993, Mr. Woodruff was nearing the end of his tour. He arranged to spend Aug. 8 sightseeing with Mr. Gogoladze, a female friend of the bodyguard chief and Marina Kapanadze, a barmaid from the Piano Bar of Tbilisi's Metechi Palace Hotel, where Mr. Woodruff and many other embassy employees lived.
With Mr. Gogoladze at the wheel of a white two-door Niva jeep and carrying a pistol, the party set off in the morning for Mount Kazbek, near Georgia's border with Russia. Mr. Woodruff sat in the back next to Ms. Kapanadze, who spoke good English and was known to Piano Bar regulars as "black Marina," because of her dark good looks and suspected intelligence ties.
After a meal and frequent stops so that Mr. Woodruff could take pictures, they headed back to Tbilisi. Soon after they passed the town of Natakhtari on the Georgia Military Highway, a single shot rang out and "everybody exclaimed," Ms. Kapanadze later told police.
"There was blood everywhere," recalled Mr. Gogoladze, now retired, in an recent interview in Tbilisi. He says he immediately suspected an assassination - but figured he, not Mr. Woodruff, was the target. "My first emotion was that this must be the Russians. They hated me," he says.
Mr. Gogoladze says he drove on without stopping to a nearby town. One hospital was closed, another had no electricity. He says he continued on to Tbilisi, where Mr. Woodruff, 45 years old, was dead on arrival at the No. 2 Hospital.
Georgia's leader, Mr. Shevardnadze, informed about the incident, rushed back to his office. He promptly fired Mr. Gogoladze as head of his security team. Mr. Shevardnadze now says he didn't suspect foul play, but was upset by Mr. Gogoladze's "bad behavior" - driving around with a CIA agent and two women without proper security. In a message to President Clinton after the shooting, he hailed Mr. Woodruff as a "soldier in the army of freedom."
Transcripts of interviews conducted by Georgian police soon after the killing reveal wide discrepancies in accounts of what happened.
While Mr. Gogoladze says he kept driving, several witnesses told police that his Niva paused for some time. One reported a roadside altercation between a man roughly resembling Mr. Gogoladze and an unidentified man. Others saw a white foreign car parked for much of the day near the scene of the shooting. Its occupants, all men, said they had a flat tire. This car, witnesses told police, raced off immediately after the shooting. The mystery vehicle and its occupants were never identified.
After taking Mr. Woodruff to the hospital, Mr. Gogoladze says he rushed back to the crime scene. He stopped at a nearby police post - and happened to spot three men he says he'd seen earlier on the roadside with a gun. The very drunk men - Mr. Sharmaidze and two friends - were arrested and taken to the offices of the Georgian version of the KGB.
Mr. Sharmaidze, a volunteer soldier from an impoverished mountain village, had spent much of the previous year fighting Russian-backed separatists in Abkhazia, a region that again flared into violence during Georgia's recent war with Russia. He says he thought police had grabbed him because he was carrying an unregistered gun, a trophy from his Abkhazia adventures.
After several days, he and his friends were moved to a holding cell at Tbilisi police headquarters, where previously mild questioning gave way to fierce beatings with clubs and fists, he says. The police chief at the time, Davit Zeikidze, a tough former Soviet soldier, says, "of course we violated human rights" because "it was a very bad time." He says he doesn't know the details of Mr. Sharmaidze's treatment because the "case was handled by the [Georgian] KGB." He recalls summoning Mr. Sharmaidze - "a stupid village drunk" - and being struck by his refusal to confess. "It is not easy to make denials to me," says Mr. Zeikidze. "Everyone was afraid of me."
One week after his arrest, Mr. Sharmaidze confessed: He said he'd shot at the Niva in a fit of pique after it nearly hit him. Because of the beating, he says now, "I would have confessed to anything."
The first FBI agent to arrive on the scene had serious doubts about the official explanation. "The story about a randomly fired shot seems unlikely at this point," the agent said in a written report three days after the murder. Noting that no part of the vehicle showed any damage from gunfire, he speculated that the murder might have taken place "somewhere other than the car" and that "the subsequent story was concocted as an explanation."
The FBI flew in additional agents. They looked at the Niva jeep again and found a small bullet hole in the rear. The bullet itself, however, was never found. The search for evidence was hampered by the fact that much of Mr. Woodruff's brain was missing when his corpse got back to the U.S., making forensic analysis difficult.
Also missing, at least initially, was the brass casing from the bullet. Georgian investigators took their American colleagues to what they said was the scene of the shooting and fired a round from Mr. Sharmaidze's Kalashnikov rifle. They followed the casing ejected from the gun - and spotted another one nearby, which they said must be the missing casing. The find, which struck some in the FBI as suspicious, was later presented in court to tie Mr. Sharmaidze to the crime.
In September 1993, the FBI interviewed an American military officer, Gilberto Villahermosa, a friend of Mr. Woodruff who had been in Tbilisi a few months before the shooting. He "expressed the opinion that the shooting of Woodruff was not a chance occurrence but that he was assassinated by [Russian military intelligence] GRU," according to an FBI record of the interview. He reported that Mr. Woodruff had identified a number of GRU agents in Georgia and been "killed to send a message that the U.S. could not continue to run intelligence operations" in territories Russia regarded as its own turf. Mr. Villahermosa did not respond to emails requesting comment.
A diplomat at the U.S. embassy in Tbilisi added another tantalizing twist. He told FBI investigators that he'd met Ms. Kapanadze, the barmaid, after the shooting and that she'd whispered to him: "Just remember: I'm a spy."
After Mr. Woodruff's funeral in Washington, family and friends gathered for drinks at the home of his widow, Meredith, who was working at the time at CIA headquarters in Langley, Va. Among the guests was Aldrich Ames, a veteran CIA officer and an old friend of the Woodruffs. He'd been in Tbilisi a few days earlier. Mr. Woodruff's sister, Georgia Woodruff Alexander, says Mr. Ames spent much of the party talking emotionally with her grieving father.
Six months later, in February 1994, Mr. Ames was arrested as a Russian spy. During interrogation, he denied any role in his old friend's death, but confessed to passing to the Russians over the years virtually every document that crossed his desk, including reports about Mr. Woodruff's work in Tbilisi.
Dell Spry, the FBI agent who put the handcuffs on Mr. Ames and worked with the CIA on the case, says he's certain Mr. Ames "did not set Freddie up to be killed." But he thinks the secrets Mr. Ames betrayed may have contributed. "Whether he meant to or not, Ames was perhaps responsible for Freddie being killed," he says.
Others dismiss any connection. "Nonsense," says Bill Lofgren, who ran the CIA section responsible for the former Soviet Union. "We found no hidden hand in the killing of Freddie. None. We found no KGB assassins lying by the road."
Back in Georgia, Mr. Sharmaidze went on trial in 1994. He initially repeated his confession, but then retracted it, explaining that he'd been beaten and "told to write the story" of his guilt. The witnesses who had told police about the mysterious foreign-made car and other details that raised questions about the random-bullet theory were not called to testify. Nor was a woman who could have helped Mr. Sharmaidze establish an alibi.
Karina Mamoyan, speaking recently in Tbilisi, says Mr. Sharmaidze and his companions visited her family's ramshackle house on the day of the shooting to share a drunken meal with her father-in-law, who did testify. She remembers lighting candles during their visit because it was already dark, which suggests the trio was still in the center of Tbilisi around the time Mr. Woodruff was shot far from town.
The most damning courtroom testimony came from Gela Bedoidze and Gennadi Berbichashvili, friends of Mr. Sharmaidze who had been arrested with him on the night of the shooting. They said they'd run out of gas and that Mr. Sharmaidze fired a shot when a white Niva refused to stop.
After a two-month trial, Mr. Sharmaidze was found guilty and sentenced to 15 years. (His sentence was later extended after an escape attempt.)
Speaking recently in the hillside shack outside Tbilisi where he now lives with his wife and two children, Mr. Bedoidze said his testimony was scripted by investigators and was untrue. "They hit me and threatened to go after my family," he said. Their car did run out of gas, he said, but it was at around midnight, two hours or more after Mr. Woodruff was killed.
Mr. Bedoidze's wife, Inga, says he arrived home after 20 days of detention with bruises and cigarette burns. Why did he not come forward earlier? "Fear, fear, fear," she says.
Mr. Bedoidze has since retracted his testimony in interviews with Zaza Sanshiashvili, a Georgian investigator who has been re-examining the case for Georgia's Prosecutor General. Mr. Berbichasvhili, who was also with Mr. Sharmaidze that night, also has withdrawn his testimony.
A U.S. diplomat who sat through the trial noted, in her written reports, assorted inconsistencies, including contradictions between a Georgian autopsy report and a later one done in the U.S. The Georgians believed Mr. Woodruff had been shot in the forehead; the Americans, who didn't share their findings with the Georgians, concluded the bullet entered the back of his head. The U.S. embassy in Tbilisi nonetheless declared itself satisfied with the trial.
Mr. Pullara, the Texas lawyer, who had lived in the same Arkansas town as the Woodruffs and knew the family, describes the trial as a "fraud." Its primary purpose, he contends, was to shut down the case quickly to avoid embarrassing two already wobbly U.S. allies - Mr. Shevardnadze and Russia's President Yeltsin. Both were hanging to power by a thread.
Mr. Shevardnadze, a former Soviet foreign minister who ruled Georgia from 1992 until 2003, denies this. He says he believes Mr. Woodruff's death was a "random bullet, period." He says he was himself the target of two Russian-orchestrated assassination attempts in the 1990s, but he doubts Russia had a hand in Mr. Woodruff's death. Russia "has more than enough sins for one country without this."
Despite Mr. Sharmaidze's conviction, the FBI kept up its investigation. In late 1994, a new FBI team traveled to Tbilisi to re-interview key witnesses, including Mr. Gogoladze, the driver, and Ms. Kapanadze, the barmaid. But Georgian officials said they couldn't find the second woman in the car, Yelena Darchiashvili.
When they finally produced her, "she was shaking she was so terrified," recalls Mr. Spry, the FBI agent. "It was kind of obvious what was going on: Someone had told her she didn't remember anything."
The FBI got a tip that a Soviet soldier-turned-mercenary with a war-mangled hand had been picked up by Georgian police soon after Mr. Woodruff's killing. A silencer and other suspicious gear had been found in his bag, the Americans were told.
When Mr. Spry asked about it, he and another FBI agent were taken to meet the man, Vladimir Rakhman, a former Soviet special-forces soldier. He struck them as too well-groomed and relaxed for someone who had been locked up for months. He told them he'd hurt his hand fighting as a mercenary. He said he'd heard there was a contract out on Mr. Woodruff, and he thought the job might have been taken by a colleague based in Rostov-on-Don, in southern Russia. "He was very matter of fact. He viewed himself as a businessman," recalls Mr. Spry.
The CIA had picked up reports that a man with a mangled hand had popped up elsewhere in the Caucasus and was trying to drum up business for a murder syndicate known as Mongoose, according to people familiar with the affair. Part of his sales pitch: the syndicate had murdered Mr. Woodruff.
U.S. officials didn't know what to make of Mr. Rakhman and his story. Mr. Spry says one detail suggested intimate knowledge of Mr. Woodruff's killing: Mr. Rakhman mentioned that the CIA agent had been shot in the back of the head, not the front, as everyone outside a small circle of Americans thought.
Investigators argued over the significance and credibility of Mr. Rakhman. "There was no conclusive evidence" either way, recalls Robert Baer, then a CIA agent working on the case with the FBI. Mr. Rakhman's current whereabouts are unknown.
To try to sift fact from fiction, the FBI flew a lie detector to Tbilisi and asked various people to sit for a test. The exercise, according to a 1996 FBI memorandum, produced "nothing to suggest something other than an accidental shooting."
In Georgia, internal struggles swamped the case in political intrigue, with rivals accusing one another of involvement in the killing. In late 2003, the political scene changed dramatically. The so-called Rose Revolution swept Mr. Shevardnadze from office and brought to power Mikheil Saakashvili, an American-trained lawyer who promised a clean break with the past.
Mr. Pullara approached members of Mr. Woodruff's family to ask if they'd support a formal request to reopen the murder case. His eldest sister, Ms. Alexander, a nurse in Arkansas, quickly endorsed the effort. She says she never believed the "blind bullet" explanation. "It smells fishy," she says.
But Mr. Woodruff's widow, Meredith, herself a former CIA officer, wanted no part of it. She says she "has no idea" whether Mr. Sharmaidze belongs in jail, but wants nothing to do with Mr. Pullara's campaign. She declined to comment further.
In 2004, Mr. Pullara traveled to Tbilisi to formally ask for the case to be reopened. Irakli Batiashvili, Georgia's intelligence chief at the time of the shooting, signed an affidavit alleging that the evidence used to convict Mr. Sharmaidze had been "manufactured," and that the spy's death was a "thoroughly planned and professionally executed political assassination."
A Georgian court rejected the appeal for a review, but the prosecutor general later asked Mr. Sanshiashvili, a senior investigator, to take another look at the affair. The absence of key witnesses, says the investigator, has made this difficult.
Of Mr. Woodruff's three companions in the Niva, only Mr. Gogoladze, the driver, is still around. He now says he is certain the shooting was an accident and Mr. Sharmaidze was responsible.
Ms. Kapanadze, the barmaid, has left Georgia and has been rumored variously to be in Turkey, Estonia and Germany. The second woman, Ms. Darchiashvili, has also vanished, says Mr. Sanshiashvili, the investigator. Neighbors at her old Tbilisi address say she moved out years ago.
Georgia's president, Mr. Saakashvili, heavily dependent on U.S. support to stay in power, says he's agnostic himself on who killed Mr. Woodruff. "It is very hard to disclose the facts" after so many years, he says. This leaves "a never-ending field for speculation." [Higgins/WallStreetJournal/18October2008]
An "Intelligent" FBI: New Procedures for Domestic Intelligence Gathering. On Friday, October 3, the Bush administration released a new set of attorney general guidelines for the FBI's domestic operations. This will almost certainly be the administration's last major post-9/11 policy initiative before it leaves office.
The AG Guidelines, contained in a publicly-available document, are intended to govern how the Bureau goes about its business here in the United States. It sets out the Bureau's responsibilities under existing laws and executive orders and spells out how its analytic, investigative, and intelligence activities are to be carried out to meet those tasks. Although Congress can certainly step in and legislate changes in how the FBI works, the guidelines themselves do not require congressional approval and will go into effect on December 1.
The new set of guidelines replaces five separate and overlapping sets of previous guidelines. For example, in the past, there were separate guidelines (some public, some not) governing criminal, national security, and foreign intelligence investigations. The implicit point in consolidating the operational rules is of course to address the pre-9/11 problem in which intelligence and criminal investigations were largely seen as distinct spheres, resulting in a set of bureaucratic rules that overly compartmentalized what each could share with the other.
What's also new is the underlying point that domestic intelligence collection isn't simply about catching someone breaking a law; prior to 9/11, the general thrust of previous guidelines was that the predicate for collecting information would rest on the Bureau having in hand some prior evidence that someone was engaged in law-breaking activities. The danger posed by international terrorism (New York and Washington, 9/11/01; Madrid, 3/11/04; London, 7/7/05) and domestic terrorism (Oklahoma City, 4/19/95) is simply too grave to rest on what amounts to a reactive model. The goal has to be early detection and prevention.
While a change from the past, the new guideline's willingness to put forward the idea that there might be a need for intelligence collection and analysis outside of putting someone in jail is in some respects a throwback to how domestic intelligence efforts were thought about before the reforms of the 1970s. Precisely because subversion and terrorism typically involve tight-knit conspiracies, it was understood that leads often come from sources and activities that are nominally law-abiding and legal. It is not illegal, to take the now classic examples, for someone to take jet pilot training; it is not illegal to buy fertilizer; it is not illegal travel to and from Pakistan; it is not illegal to buy and use multiple cell phones. Nevertheless, when seen in connection with other actions, knowledge of each of these activities may be precisely the kind of information that the Bureau will need in order to head off a potential plot. Nor is this type of information to be hoarded by the FBI: It is also the Bureau's "responsibility to provide information as consistently and fully as possible to agencies with relevant responsibilities to protect the United States and its people from terrorism and other threats to national security." As the fact sheet accompanying the release of the guidelines bluntly notes: the guidelines "reflect the FBI's status as a full-fledged intelligence agency and member of the U.S. intelligence community."
The new guidelines' emphasis on intelligence collection and the seamless sharing of information within the Bureau and with other relevant law-enforcement and intelligence agencies will not lead, as the American Civil Liberties Union claims, to unfettered "political witch hunts" and "unwarranted investigations of political enemies and peace groups." Can there be abuses? Sure. Anyone familiar with power and bureaucracies in general and the Bureau's own sometimes sloppy internal workings in particular can reliably predict that investigations will take place that shouldn't. But we also now know what the costs are for devising a system in which there is absolutely no tolerance for such mistakes.
Moreover, 2008 is not 1968. Unlike then, there exists today a whole range of congressional and executive branch entities whose job it is to oversee the implementation of these guidelines. And, per the new guidelines, as the seriousness of an investigation rises, so too the need to sustain it with higher approvals and factual evidentiary support. The closer an individual comes to being charged with a crime and, hence, to seeing his or her life or liberty put at risk, the higher the bar is set for the investigation proceeding. In short, the idea that the Bureau could engage in a politically inspired witch hunt for any sustained period seems highly improbable.
When one compares the American domestic intelligence system with that of our two closest democratic allies in the fight against terrorism - Great Britain and France - the need to prevent attacks has driven all three in recent years to revise the how law-enforcement and intelligence communities work together. And, indeed, there are a number of aspects to the British and French approach - such as monitoring speech, electronic surveillance and preemptive detentions of suspects - that are more aggressive than anything being put forward here in the United States.
From this one shouldn't conclude that those are measures we, in turn, should adopt. But it does suggest that the new guidelines are well within the norms of other liberal democracies and consonant with the threat we all now face. [Schmitt/WeeklyStandard/20October2008]
Section III - COMMENTARY
New Consensus On Terrorism, by John
McLaughlin, a senior fellow at the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies and deputy director and acting director of Central Intelligence from 2000-2004. One of the major tasks for our next president is repairing the frayed consensus on how to deal with terrorism.
In the years immediately following Sept. 11, 2001, terrorism was unchallenged as our premier national security issue, and there was minimal controversy about how to handle it. As the nation's No. 2 intelligence official, I heard broad agreement in the executive branch and on both sides of the aisle in Congress that could be summed up as: "Never again, whatever it takes."
Controversy about all aspects of terrorism has grown markedly in the last three years, however, and a new administration will have to wrestle with at least four sets of issues to maintain forward momentum.
First, all experts agree al Qaeda has established a sanctuary of sorts in Pakistan's tribal areas, but they differ sharply over what that means. Specialists such as Georgetown University's Bruce Hoffman and most government experts argue that al Qaeda's capacity for catastrophic attacks remains intact - a view this author shares.
Other well-credentialed experts, such as sociologist Marc Sageman, say their research shows al Qaeda has evolved into a leaderless group of radicals no longer capable of atrocities on the scale of Sept. 11. Still others such as Lawrence Wright, author of a landmark book on the Sept. 11 terrorists, point to growing criticism of Osama bin Laden by influential Muslim clerics and al Qaeda's declining opinion poll support in places such as Pakistan.
In short, there is now a genuine argument underway about just how great and immediate are the dangers terrorists pose. Adding to this blurred picture is the public's fading memory of Sept. 11; the latest CNN poll shows fewer Americans expecting another terrorist attack - about 35 percent - than at any time since Sept. 11, when the figure was around 60 percent.
Second, controversies over issues such as interrogation and electronic monitoring have eroded the consensus about the proper mix of tools to use in combating terrorism. Some of the bitterest disagreements about electronic monitoring are merely papered over in the bill that Congress passed under extraordinary political pressure this summer after more than two years of partisan wrangling.
Meanwhile, the so-called "torture debate" has yet to produce consensus on some of the more contentious underlying questions: What is the most effective way to gain detainee information in a timely, legal and morally acceptable way? Does failure to do so carry moral and political culpability if fellow citizens die as a result?
A third urgent and unresolved issue is how to attack terrorists who find safe haven inside a state with which we are not at war - roughly the question we faced before Sept. 11, now raised anew by al Qaeda's sanctuary in Pakistan's barely-governed borderlands.
The question had less relevance in the first few years after Sept. 11, because key al Qaeda figures scattered mostly to urban areas where U.S. intelligence had a presence or relatively unimpeded access. But with al Qaeda operatives now holed up in Pakistan's remotest provinces, the dilemma we face could be summed up this way: What we feel pressed to do tactically - go in unilaterally and root them out - runs counter to what we must do strategically. We need to build a consensus with Pakistan that this problem threatens us jointly and therefore requires vigorous coordinated action.
Failure to reach such a consensus could set the stage for a major calamity if some of the experts are right: a devastating attack on the United States that would force us into dramatic unilateral actions certain to send shockwaves across South Asia and the Middle East.
Fourth, the terrorist threat must now compete with a mosaic of international problems far more demanding than what the United States faced at the time of Sept. 11, 2001. In the aftermath of Sept. 11, it was relatively easy for the United States to establish national security priorities, but it will be wrenchingly harder in today's world. In 2001, we had not yet seen an Iraq war, a North Korean nuclear test, a resurrected Taliban, an Arab-Israeli meltdown, a rapidly maturing Iranian nuclear program, the cratering of the international economy, or a resurgent Russia.
The threat that terrorism poses to American lives will keep it high on the list, but it will now have to vie for time, attention, resources and policymaker energy with this growing array of challenges, some of which arguably could pose even greater long-term threats to U.S. interests.
The dangers and complexities surrounding the terrorism issue make it the ideal candidate for the bipartisan consensus approach that both presidential contenders espouse. Without such an approach, we risk a perilous drift that could end once again in tragedy. [McLaughlin/WashingtonTimes/12October2008]
Section V - OBITUARIES, BOOKS AND COMING EVENTS
Elizabeth A. Walters, Education Administrator. Elizabeth A. Walters, a retired religious education administrator who earlier had worked for the National Security Agency, died Oct. 9 of esophageal cancer at her daughter's home in Stevensville. She was 77.
Elizabeth "Bettie" Anne Yent was born in Baltimore and raised on Homestead Street. She attended Seton High School and graduated from Eastern High School in 1949.
From 1950 to 1955, she worked as the Albanian analyst at Fort Meade for the old Army Security Agency, which later became the NSA.
Mrs. Walters was a communicant and worked as religious education administrator at St. John the Evangelist Roman Catholic Church in Severna Park from 1968 to 1995.
She also volunteered with the church's Operation Care, which helped care for and feed the homeless.
Mrs. Walters was also a member of the Church on the Rock, a nondenominational church, in Millersville.
Mrs. Walters, who was seldom without a hat, enjoyed shopping, sewing and reading.
Mrs. Walters was also a cat fancier and enjoyed caring for Hobo, a stray she had taken in.
She was married for 49 years to Theodore Norman Walters, who also worked at the NSA. He died in 2000.
Surviving are two sons, Michael F. Walters of Frederick and Ronald S. Walters of Millersville; a brother, Walter E. Yent Jr. of Baltimore; and a grandson. [BaltimoreSun/18October2008]
Orrin Rankin Magill Jr., 87; Led CIA's East Asia Pacific Area. Orrin Rankin Magill Jr., 87, the former director of the CIA's East Asia Pacific region who later married hundreds of Fairfax County couples as a court-appointed civil celebrant, died of prostate cancer Sept. 23 at his home in McLean.
Mr. Magill spent most of his working life in east Asia for the CIA, stationed in Vietnam, Taiwan, Japan and Hong Kong. He was appointed to President Richard M. Nixon's Special Committee on Heroin, a U.S. effort to stop the drug traffic on the Ho Chi Minh Trail in Vietnam.
After his 1975 retirement, he was appointed by the Fairfax courts to serve as one of a number of marriage celebrants, who performed civil marriages for a fee, much like old-time justices of the peace. Mr. Magill didn't limit his weddings to the courthouse and would sometimes marry couples in his home, surrounded by Asian art collected in his travels, or in parks the couples chose.
He was born on a family farm in Dublin, Va., and raised in Shanghai where his missionary parents worked for the YMCA. He learned Chinese history, culture and Mandarin. He returned to the United States for college, graduating from the University of North Carolina. Drafted into the Army in 1943, he was sent to Yale University to study Burmese and then was stationed in Burma as a communications specialist and cryptographer.
Mr. Magill volunteered for the Office of Strategic Services during this period and was a member of the OSS-101, which supplied, trained, led and fought with troops known as the U.S. Kachin Rangers.
After World War II, Mr. Magill joined the CIA at its inception and spent a significant amount of time in the 1950s in Vietnam. He later helped analyze the conflict for the secret history of the war, which became known as the Pentagon Papers. His personal conclusion, his family said, was that Vietnam would be overrun by Communists by the mid-1970s.
His first wife, Anne Elizabeth Graybill Magill, died in 1986.
Survivors include his wife of 20 years, Pierrette D. Koneczny Magill of McLean; four children from his first marriage, Anne E. Frauens of Honolulu, Orrin R. Magill III of High Point, N.C., Sarah Kent Kiely of Fairfax Station and Stephen R. Magill of Herndon; two sisters; two brothers; and 11 grandchildren. [Sullivan/WashingtonPost/11October2008]
Capt. Bill Carey, Fighter Pilot, POW, Business and Civic
Leader. Bill Carey, a longtime Sarasota resident, who died Sept. 28 at 89 of complications from Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, welcomed new challenges as a business and civic leader.
"He was a man full of ideas," said his daughter, Carol Godwin, of Alexandria, Va. "Every time I'd talk to him, he'd be working on some new project."
The 1941 University of Florida graduate with a journalism degree put his career ambitions on hold to join the Army Air Forces during World War II. As a fighter pilot during bombing missions in Germany, Capt. Carey was shot down and taken prisoner in June 1943.
During his 22 months in seven POW camps, he used special training he had received in sending and receiving coded messages through letters and packages to help inform U.S. military officials and fellow POWs of escape plans, German maneuvers and other war developments.
The top-secret Military Intelligence Service-X spy network he took part in was credited with saving the lives of thousands of POWs.
Advancing Allied troops freed Carey and other POWs in April 1945 as they were plotting their escape.
His leadership role in captivity helped spur his later business and civic accomplishments, his daughter said.
After the war, he worked as a sports reporter at the Miami Herald and as a broadcaster at a Miami radio station until he moved to Florida's West Coast in 1949 with his wife and young daughter to establish one of Sarasota's first radio stations with several business partners.
Carey worked as an announcer at WKXY (now WLSS) before starting his own advertising and marketing firm, Carey Advertising.
During his 35 years as an ad executive, he served as president of the Sarasota Chamber of Commerce and on the board of the Florida Chamber of Commerce -- roles that helped him win a seat on the County Commission in 1966 in his first bid for public office.
He still holds the distinction of being the last Democrat to serve on the five-member board. During his four-year term, he also represented the county's interests on the Sarasota-Manatee Airport Authority and the Tampa Bay Regional Planning Council.
Carey declined to seek a second term on the commission to devote more time to his advertising business.
His interest in golf led him to become the first executive director of the Florida State Golf Association in 1957, a position he held until 1981.
After moving to Palmetto in 1984, he worked as an assistant to the publisher of the Bradenton Herald and regularly wrote columns for the paper.
Active in POW organizations, he also designed and helped raise the money for a POW memorial installed at Camp Blanding Museum and Memorial Park in Starke in 1990.
In addition to his daughter, he also is survived by his wife of 62 years, Edna; another daughter, Lynne M. Carey, of Sausalito, Calif.; a sister, Casi Carey Phelps, of Sarasota; and a granddaughter.
He will be buried with full military honors at Arlington National Cemetery. [Zaloudek/HeraldTribune/14Oct2008]
Betrayal Has No Expiration Date, by Christhard
Laepple, Reviewed by Catherine Hickley. A brother who spied on his sister. A father who denounced a 14-year-old boy in his son's class. A friendship forged solely to glean information.
These are among the sordid tales former East German secret agents recount in Christhard Laepple's disturbing book, "Verrat Verjaehrt Nicht'' ("Betrayal Has No Expiration Date'').
Laepple, a journalist for German television station ZDF, spent four years combing through the files of East Germany's Ministry of State Security, or Stasi, and interviewing ex-spies and their victims for a television documentary. Altogether, he conducted some 100 interviews and whittled his subjects down to the six profiles in this book.
"Verrat Verjaehrt Nicht'' offers rare insights into what motivated as many as 500,000 individuals to spy on friends, colleagues and family members. Laepple combines penetrating psychological portraits with a riveting account of how an authoritarian regime can invade the most personal aspects of human life.
Most of the spies professed to be committed socialists who believed they were weeding out capitalist opponents, Laepple reports. A few felt compromised by what they did. Others were remorseless opportunists with scant regard for the lives they ruined. All withheld their real names for fear of being ostracized.
Tanja, the subject of a chapter titled "The Idealist From Leipzig,'' subscribed wholeheartedly to the socialist dream. She tells Laepple that she and her Tanzanian husband were sent to West Germany to spy on the enemy.
According to her file, which runs to hundreds of pages, Tanja's bosses were at first impressed by her success in making contacts with influential Western journalists. Yet her research for documentaries at the Mainz offices of ZDF - then a West German station - opened her mind, causing her to question whether spying for East Germany was morally justifiable. Instead of paving the way to a glorious socialist future, Tanja decided she had hit "a dead end.''
Her Stasi handlers concluded that Tanja, though clever, was also emotional and vulnerable. Her meetings with secret police bosses became an ordeal, until finally she told them she no longer wanted to spy and had no intention of returning to East Germany. Amazingly, she was set free to live in the West.
Much less principled was an ambitious Weimar museum director who made friends with a ZDF journalist in East Berlin in an attempt to make the station's programming more favorable to the East German regime, according to Laepple.
The newsman spoke openly, unwittingly passing on useful tidbits about power struggles at ZDF. He also gave his East German friend gifts including a Sony Walkman, a rare luxury item.
The museum director, meanwhile, claimed Stasi reimbursements for every cost incurred by the friendship: Even a bunch of flowers for the journalist's girlfriend is meticulously recorded in his expense accounts. Today, his biggest regret is that his "damn file'' wasn't destroyed in 1989. If not for that, he could have continued his career, he complains.
In this stifling atmosphere of conspiracy and oppression, the most astonishing stories describe those who fought the regime, risking their freedom and even their lives.
Laepple recalls the story of Dieter, "The Loner of Wittenberge,'' a man who dreamed of America as a child and spent his youth battling the authorities. The only pupil in his class who refused to join the communist youth organization, Dieter asked teachers uncomfortable questions, such as why East Germans had to build the Berlin Wall if they were the "goodies.''
Dieter landed in a children's home where food deprivation and beatings were meted out as punishments for minor misdemeanors such as unpolished shoes. On his release, Dieter made several failed attempts to escape the country and was repeatedly thrown into jail for his troubles.
Dieter was eventually "sold'' to West Germany for hard currency in 1983, Laepple reports. Today he lives in Hamburg, eking out a living as a tour-bus driver. Yet he expresses no bitterness for his lost youth, no regret for his actions.
Though Laepple grew up in West Germany, he resists the urge to condemn East Germans for complying with an undemocratic regime. He instead explores the human response to repression from all perspectives - the courage and the cowardice; the hunger for power and the longing for freedom; the inner voice of the conscience and the desire for personal advancement that prompts some individuals to ignore it.
This is a powerful book, etched in black, white and myriad shades of gray. [Hickley/Bloomberg/15October2008]
EVENTS IN COMING TWO MONTHS....
22 - 25 October 2008 - McLean, VA - AFIO National Intelligence Symposium - AFIO 2008 Fall Intelligence Symposium - 22-25 OctoberThreats to U.S. Security Technology Theft, Insider Threats, Economic Espionage
and International Organized Crime. Three Days: Day 1 [10/23] at MITRE Corporation; Day 2 [10/24] at U.S. Department of State:
Day 3 [10/25] at Sheraton-Premiere Hotel. Event registration has now closed.
23 October 2008, 12 noon - 1 pm - Washington, DC - The Lost Spy: An
American In Stalin's Secret Service, at the International Spy Museum
When former New York intellectual Isaiah Oggins was brutally murdered in 1947 on Stalin’s orders, he became a forgotten Cold War footnote. Then in 1992, Boris Yeltsin handed over a deeply censored dossier to the White House which awakened interest in Oggins’ life and his death. In The Lost Spy, Andrew Meier at last reveals the truth: Oggins was one of the first Americans to spy for the Soviets. Based on six years of international detective work, Meier traces the rise and fall of this brilliant Columbia University graduate sent to run a safe house in Berlin and spy on the Romanovs in Paris and the Japanese in Manchuria. The author will reflect on the motivations of the American spy and the reason for Oggins’ hideous death by poisoning in a KGB laboratory.
Location: International Spy Museum, 800 F St NW, Washington, DC, Gallery Place/Chinatown Metrorail Station, TICKETS: FREE. No registration required.
October 27-29, 2008 - The Techno Forensics Conference - NIST Headquarters, Gaithersburg Maryland. Former KGB Major General Oleg Kalugin and Georgian Ambassador to the
U.S. Vasil Sikharulidze to Keynote InfraGard Day on the 28th.
AFIO member Donald Withers and TheTrainingCo., producers of the annual Techno Forensics Conference at NIST Headquarters in Gaithersburg, MD, has made our AFIO members a special FREE offer to attend this year's Techno Forensics Conference being held on October 27 - 29, 2008. The first 100 members to register for the conference online will be allowed to register for FREE as a conference VIP. You MUST be registered for the conference prior to date in order to gain access through the main gate at NIST. Parking is free. This will be the fourth year for Techno Forensics and the agenda has just been posted. This year will feature an InfraGard Day and will be hosted by the Maryland Chapter of the FBI’s InfraGard program. There will be some of the top practitioners in the world in the fields of e-Discovery, Digital Forensics and Information Security and Technical Business Continuity Planning.
The registration price is currently listed at $895 on the website. Select that price but enter "0" for amount paid and enter "AFIO VIP" in the Promotional Code Section of the form. For any members who hold a CISSP or a CISA certification, this conference also provides 20 CEU hours.
Here's a link to the conference agenda. There will be more to come so visit often for agenda updates:
To register for one of the FREE VIP seats, visit the following online registration page.
Any questions, call Don Withers at 410.703.0332
28 October 2008, 6:30 pm - Washington, DC - "Spy Magic: Disguise,
Deception, Illusion and Espionage" at the International Spy Museum. WHAT: “If I could stand in the focus of powerful footlights and deceive
attentive and undisturbed onlookers…Then I could most certainly…deceive
German observers a mile away or more.”—Jasper Maskelyne
Magicians, like spies, excel at the art of misdirection and deception. Join Jonna and Tony Mendez, both former CIA chiefs of disguise, as they explore how magic and illusion have been used through the centuries to deceive the enemy. This survey ranges from the warfare philosophy of Sun Tzu to the CIA’s consultations with illusionists who helped them overcome the challenges of operating in denied areas of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Go inside well known World War II deception operations Mincemeat and Bodyguard and discover the trickery of war-time magician Jasper Maskelyne. Then it’s on to the Cold War and the Mendezes’ own work in the mean streets of Moscow which required a special blend of conjuring and chemistry. Using historical footage and film re-enactments, the Mendezes will enlighten the audience on the use of stage management and misdirection against the opposition
WHERE: International Spy Museum, 800 F St NW, Washington, DC, Gallery Place/Chinatown Metrorail Station.
TICKETS: $15 Advance Registration required. Tickets are non-refundable and do not include admission to the International Spy Museum. To register, call 202.393.7798; order online at www.spymuseum.org; or purchase tickets in person at the International Spy Museum.
Thursday, Friday 6 -7 November 2008, 7:30 am to 6 pm - Washington, DC - "Issues for the New Administration" the theme of the18th Annual Review of the Field of National Security Law Conference by the American Bar Association's Standing Committee on Law and National Security
The registration fee is $170.00 per day or $325.00 for both days.
Additionally there will be a charge of $60.00 per person for the
reception/dinner on Thursday evening, November 5. Student prices are
outlined on the registration form.
Location: Renaissance Washington DC Hotel, Renaissance Ballroom, 999 9th St NW, Washington, DC
Selected Topics and Speakers include:
Thursday, November 6: The Nature, Scope and Scale of National Security Threats Inside and Outside the United States with Suzanne E. Spaulding, Joel F. Brenner [NCIX], David Kay [IAEA/UNSCOM], Joseph Billy, Jr. [FBI].
Managing the Intelligence Enterprise with M. E. “Spike” Bowman [NCIX], Wyndee Parker [HPSCI], William C. Banks [Syracuse], Michael J. Heimbach [FBI], James R. Locher III.
A Sustainable Legal Regime for Foreign and Domestic Intelligence with Elizabeth Rindskopf Parker [U of Pacific], Lara M. Flint [Senate], John Rizzo [CIA], James A. Baker [OIPR], James McPherson.
Luncheon – Keynote Speaker: Hon. Sheldon Whitehouse, Senate, RI
The War in Georgia and the Future of U.S./Russian Relations with John Norton Moore [UVA], Hon. Sergey I. Kislyak [Amb Russia], Gen. Wesley K. Clark, Hon. James F. Collins [Carnegie], Hon. Lawrence Eagleburger, Dimitri K. Simes [Nixon Center].
Challenges for the Private Sector in National Security with Judith Miller [Bechtel], Angeline G. Chen [Lockheed], Raymond A. Mislock [DuPont], Alan J. Kreczko [former NSC], Scott Charney [Microsoft].
Dinner – Keynote Speaker: Hon. Michael McConnell, DNI
Friday, November 7, 2008 - Due Process and Issues Surrounding Detention: Considerations for the New Administration with Harvey Rishikof [NWC], Kate Martin [CNSS], CDR Glenn M. Sulmasy, USCG Academy, Matthew Waxman [Columbia], Benjamin Wittes [Brookings].
Prosecution by Military Commission: A Question for the Next Administration with Scott L. Silliman [Duke], John D. Altenburg, Jr., Charles D. Swift [Emory], Jameel Jaffer [ACLU], David B. Rivkin [Baker Hostetler].
Luncheon – Keynote: Hon David B. Sentelle, Chief Judge, US Court of Appeals for D.C. Circuit
Ethical Issues for National Security Lawyers with Albert C. Harvey, James E. Baker [Georgetown], Kathleen Clark [Wash Univ], John D. Hutson [Franklin Pierce], Alberto J. Mora [USN].
For complete program and further information: http://www.abanet.org/natsecurity/events/conference/program.shtml
06 November 2008 - San Francisco, CA - The AFIO Jim Quesada Chapter hosts Cynthia
Manager, Intelligence Program, Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)
San Francisco Field Division. Under a revision to Executive Order
12333, which defines the United States Intelligence Activities, a
portion of the Drug Enforcement Administration became a member of the
Intelligence Community (IC). That portion of DEA provides intelligence
coordination and information sharing with other members of the IC and
homeland security to enhance the efforts to reduce the drug supply,
protect national security, and combat global terrorism. Ms.
Dowgewicz-Hordyk will explain some of the differences between
intelligence in law enforcement vs. in the Intelligence Community and
discuss some of the challenges of entering this new arena.
The meeting will be held at United Irish Cultural Center, 2700 45th Avenue, San Francisco (between Sloat and Wawona). 11:30 AM no host cocktails; noon - luncheon. $25 member rate with advance reservation and payment; $35 non-member rate or at door. E-mail RSVP to Mariko Kawaguchi (please indicate meat or fish) no later than 5PM 10/27/08: email@example.com or mail check made out to "AFIO" to:
Mariko Kawaguchi, P.O. Box 117578 Burlingame, CA 94011. (650) 622-9840 X608.
Sunday, 9 November 2008, 10 a.m. - 2 p.m. - Washington, DC - Parade of Trabants at the International Spy Museum. The ugly duckling of East Germany’s roadways finally gets its day. To celebrate the fall of the Berlin Wall Trabant collectors will caravan to DC, parking their cars on F Street, NW in front of the Museum. When the Berlin Wall fell on 9 November 1989 thousands of East Germans rushed to reunite with friends and family. Their typical mode of transportation? The Trabant. What was once the most common vehicle in East Germany, despite its poor performance and smoky two-stroke engine, was their automotive liberator. The Trabant is now an affectionately regarded symbol of East Germany and of the fall of communism. It is even featured in the International Spy Museum’s permanent exhibit within an East German streetscape. The Trabant has become a genuine collectors' car with a devoted following. Incredibly, it seems that this tiny car, often inaccurately described as having a cardboard body, has captured the hearts of car lovers all over the world.
Trabants are quite rare in the US, but on 9 November 2008, a caravan of the communist-bloc cars will converge on the International Spy Museum to celebrate the 18th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall. The public will have the unique opportunity to not only view nine of the cars, which will be parked in front of the Museum, but also have the chance to win a ride in a Trabant. While the cars are on display, experts will be on hand in front of the Museum on F Street, NW, to answer questions about Trabants, the Cold War, and Communism, while the local German band, Blaskapelle Alte Kameraden, creates a festive atmosphere. This event is free-of-charge.
Experts who will be available: Peter Earnest, Museum Executive Director; Dr. Thomas Boghardt, Museum historian and author; and Trabant Collectors. German music will be played. Where: International Spy Museum, 800 F Street, NW, Washington, DC. No charge to attend.
12 -13 November
2008 - Fair Lakes, VA - The NMIA hosts a Symposium on "Preparing the
Intelligence Professional of the Future: Meeting the Challenge." The
event is being held at Northrup Grumman Center, Fair Lakes, VA. The
conference, sponsored jointly by the Office of Under Secretary of
Defense for Intelligence (OUSDI) and NMIA [National Military
Intelligence Association], will feature presentations from a variety of
organizations and speakers on intelligence education and training.
Under Secretary of Defense (USDI) James R. Clapper, Jr., will be
providing the keynote address. Ellen McCarthy, Director Human Capital
and Security Office, USDI, panel to discuss future military training
and professional development. DoD Training Transformation. Reese
Marsden, OUSDI, military service training program with service training
academy representatives. Dave Kogar and Mieke Eoyang, SSCI and HPSCI,
perspective. Steve Fowler, Director Training and Education, CINTT Corp,
panel on distance learning. DIA and Sherman Kent School, virtual
intelligence simulation. Dr. Mark Lowenthal, representing the
Intelligence and Security Association, will be speaking on what is
needed to meet future needs of the IC. HUMINT and CI training, industry
approaches, and the new ODNI-sponsored A-Space and RASER are other
topics. The symposium will conclude with a discussion by DIA-designate
LTG Ronald L. Burgess, Jr.
Further information at http://www.nmia.org/upcomingevents/2008nmiafallsymposium.html
Thursday, 13 November 2008, 7 pm - 10 pm - Washington, DC - DINNER WITH A SPY: An Evening with Milt Bearden - at Spy Museum.
When Milt Bearden started at the CIA in 1964, he had
little notion that his service around the world in Europe, Asia,
Africa, and South Asia would lead him to become the most highly
decorated operations officers in its senior service, a respected
author, and a Hollywood advisor. His 30 years of service spanned the
height of the Cold War to the demise of the Soviet Union and included
leading the CIA covert war supporting the Afghan resistance in their
fight against the Soviet army. This conflict, recently portrayed in
Charlie Wilson’s War, is just one of the films for which Bearden has
served as an advisor. His long time friendship with Robert DeNiro
influenced 2006’s The Good Shepherd—an intense account of the early
days of the Agency. Be one of only 20 guests at Zola for a three-course
meal where you’ll talk with Bearden about his extraordinary career and
cinematic connections and enjoy the dialogue between this insider and
CIA veteran International Spy Museum executive director Peter Earnest.
Please call 202.654.0932 or write firstname.lastname@example.org to register or with special dietary needs.
WHERE: International Spy Museum, 800 F St NW, Washington, DC, Gallery Place/Chinatown Metrorail Station.
TICKETS: $250 includes three-course dinner with wines. Space is extremely limited – advance registration required! Tickets are non-refundable and do not include admission to the International Spy Museum. To register, call 202.393.7798; order online at www.spymuseum.org; or purchase tickets in person at the International Spy Museum.
Monday, 17 November 2008, 0900 - 1500 - Laurel, MD - The National Cryptologic Museum Foundation invites all to their annual General Membership Meeting. If not a member, this is a perfect time to join and discover this and many other superb programs the host throughout the year. The meeting will be held at the Kossiakoff Center of the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 0900-1500. Registration and breakfast begin at 0815 and lunch will be served 1230-1330. This year’s theme: "Outlook for NSA in the 21st Century." U.S. Senator Benjamin Cardin speaks at 10:15 to 11:00. Lt Gen Michael Hayden, Director of the CIA, will be our keynote speaker. Joining General Hayden on the agenda will be GEN Al Gray, former Commandant of the Marine Corps and SIGINT pioneer, and Mr. Charles Allen, Assistant Secretary for Intelligence Analysis, Department of Homeland Security. An impressive program! Current Museum Members are requested to mail the $15 registration fee to NCMF, POB 1682, Fort Meade, MD 20755 by 12 November. The non-member fee is $25. Please call the Foundation office at 301-688-5436 to pay by credit card. Directions to the Kossiakoff Center, located at 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723-6099, (240-228-5000), are on the reverse side. We look forward to seeing you there. Visit the NCMF website at http://www.nationalcryptologicmuseumfoundation.com/ for more information on their activities.
Monday, 17 November 2008, 6:30 p.m. - Washington, DC - Rose Mary Sheldon [co-author with Thijs Voskuilen] on "The Secret History of History" at the International Spy Museum - OPERATION MESSIAH: APOSTLE PAUL, AGENT PROVOCATEUR?
WHAT: “Do not be deceived: God cannot be mocked.”—Galatians
Was the self-proclaimed successor to Jesus actually working for the Roman administration in Palestine and other parts of the Empire? Col. Rose Mary Sheldon, co-author [with Thijs Voskuilen] of Operation Messiah: St. Paul, Roman Intelligence and the Birth of Christianity, challenges the idea that Apostle Paul was a true follower of Jesus much less a saint. Drawing from Paul's biography and his own letters, Sheldon finds numerous clues to suggest that the former persecutor never left the ranks of the Roman government but instead went undercover by feigning conversion en route to Damascus. Voskuilen and Sheldon's shocking theories about Paul's real purpose in promoting Jesus as the Messiah will give you a startling new perspective on the dramatic and turbulent early days of Christianity. Thijs Voskuilen is unable to join Dr. Sheldon to make this a joint presentation.
WHERE: International Spy Museum, 800 F St NW, Washington, DC, Gallery Place/Chinatown Metrorail Station. TICKETS: $15. Advance registration required. Tickets are non-refundable and do not include admission to the International Spy Museum. To register, call 202.393.7798; order online at www.spymuseum.org; or purchase tickets in person at the International Spy Museum.
20 November 2008 - Colorado Springs, CO - AFIO Rocky Mountain Chapter meets to hear Sheriff Terry Maketa on "Law Enforcement and Intelligence." Sheriff Maketa is Sheriff of El Paso County, Colorado. The program starts at 11 a.m. with the program starting at noon. Event takes place at the Falcon Club (Old Officers' Club) Inquiries and reservations to Riverwear53@aol.com
20 November 2008, 7:00 PM - Arlington, VA - The Defense Intelligence Alumni Association has the right idea! Not a meeting, not a lecture, no PowerPoint presentations.....but a special Evening Tasting of Five Single Malt Scotch Whiskies. They invite Members to this special Tasting of Whiskies Produced by The Balvenie Distillery. Event to be held at the Lyon Park Community Center 414 North Fillmore St in Arlington, VA. Light fare will be served. The price, only $30 per person. The Balvenie distillery is located in the town of Dufftown in the region of Speyside, which has the greatest concentration of malt distilleries in Scotland. Family owned for five generations, The Balvenie is unique in growing, malting, and kilning its own barley, having a full cooperage on site, a full-time coppersmith, and a Malt Master in David Stewart who has spent 45 years with the distillery. The Balvenie is Scotland’s most hand crafted whisky. We will taste five whiskies in The Balvenie range. The tasting will be conducted by "Dr. Whisky," Samuel Simmons, The Balvenie Brand Ambassador USA. Dr. Simmons has hosted tasting events and whisky tours, written and taught Scotch whisky history, and sat on prestigious whisky judging panels.
At Edinburgh University in Scotland, he earned a Ph.D. in English Literature and became both Poet Laureate and President of the Edinburgh University Water of Life Society. He was a tasting and selection panelist and the first ambassador for the international Scotch Malt Whisky Society. He has been featured in Scotland on Sunday and The Malt Whisky Yearbook 2008 and 2009. Dr. Whisky (www.drwhisky.com), his online blog of tasting notes and whisky history, is widely respected within the industry and received a people’s choice award in the 2007 Drammies.
RSVP by 10 November to DIAA, Attn: Whisky, P.O. Box 489, Hamilton, Virginia 20159 Enclose checks for $30 per person payable to DIAA, Inc. No refunds after 13 November. Inquiries to Marty Hurwitz at email@example.com.
1 December 2008 - Miami, FL - The Board of Directors and Members for The Ted Shackley Miami Chapter of AFIO cordially invites you to a membership cocktail party honoring Gen. John K. Singlaub. Hosted by our chapter, we will gather to honor this Great American and hope you will save the first week of December date. All paid members and those wishing to renew membership or join are welcomed. We will also welcome invited guests to enjoy cocktails plus dinner. Location: TBA Your printed invitation will be forth coming
Hosts: Tom Spencer, Esq., Robert Heber and special guest
Time: 6:00 to 8:30pm Food and Beverage will begin promptly at 6:00
Contact: Tom Spencer: TRSMiami@aol.com Robert Heber: 786-473-7000
Tuesday 2 December 2008, 5:30 - 8 p.m. - New York, NY - " The Coming Collapse of China" is the theme of the AFIO NY METRO Chapter Dinner featuring author/lawyer Gordon Chang.“Beneath the surface, there is a weak China, in long-term decline and even on the verge of collapse.” A fascinating topic/speaker! Chang previously wrote "Nuclear Showdown."
5:30 PM – 6:00 PM: Registration; 6:00 PM: Meeting Start, BUFFET DINNER AND OPEN BAR – Until 8:00 PM. Location: STEELCASE BUILDING, 4 Columbus Circle, Manhattan Between 57th & 58th Streets on 8th Ave.
COST: $40. Per Person; $20. Per Student. RESERVATIONS: Strongly Suggested, Not Required.
Inquiries to Jerry Goodwin, President, AFIO - New York Metropolitan Chapter, at 646-696-1828 or at firstname.lastname@example.org
03 December 2008 - Ft Meade, MD - The National Cryptologic Museum Foundation conducts special Pearl Harbor Remembrance Program. Program will review the attack from the Japanese perspective and a Japanese historian will be part of this fascinating reexamination of history. Further information to appear here in coming weeks. Visit the NCMF website at http://www.nationalcryptologicmuseumfoundation.com/
Saturday, 6 December 2008 - Florida - The AFIO North Florida Chapter meets at the Orange Park Country Club. Meet and greet (and partake of Quiel's delectable hors d'oeuvres!) starts at 11:00 am, with lunch at noon, followed by program and Chapter business, then adjourn by 3:00 pm.
This is a very important meeting, as we will be attending to two key issues: First, we will hold election of officers -- a proposed slate will likely be announced in either the next newsletter or via later e-mail, but of course nominations will also be accepted from the floor. In addition, we are working on updating our Chapter Bylaws as required to bring them more in line with the 2008 Chapter Bylaws Policy & Bylaws Boilerplate published by National HQs -- We will have a list of proposed changes for review at the meeting or, with luck, published in the newsletter for review beforehand. Information on a program will hopefully also be included in the newsletter. One agenda item for the meeting will definitely be a report on the recent AFIO National Conference attended by Dane Baird.
Please RSVP to Quiel at email@example.com as soon as possible -- now is not too early! -- and as usual family and guests are cordially invited. See you there!
For Additional Events two+ months or greater....view our online Calendar of Events
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