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Section I - INTELLIGENCE HIGHLIGHTS
Canadian Held in Libya as US Oil Spy Suspect. A Canadian suspected of industrial espionage on behalf of the United States has been prevented from leaving Libya for security reasons.
It said Douglas Oriali, who also has Australian and Irish citizenship, is suspected of working with US intelligence "to gather information aiming to ensure the failure of a drilling project off the Libyan coast by Britain's BP."
The paper quoted "a senior official" as saying that Oriali on arrival said he was an archaeologist visiting Libya as a tourist.
Oriali was placed under surveillance, the official said, adding he was then prevented from leaving the country after "contacts with a US diplomat in Libya who is suspected of being an intelligence agent."
The Canadian embassy, contacted by AFP, refused to comment.
However, the newspaper quoted "sources from the embassy" as saying Oriali is being held at his Tripoli hotel and that he has been questioned twice by Libyan security and that his laptop and mobile phone have been confiscated.
Under questioning, Oriali reportedly supplied the authorities with his Internet banking details and information about the content of emails.
BP has said it would start drilling off the Libyan coast during the second half of the year under a 2007 deal with Tripoli allowing it to drill five wells in the Gulf of Sirte at depths of about 1,700 metres (5,500 feet).
That is slightly deeper than the Gulf of Mexico BP well that ruptured on April 20, causing the worst US environmental disaster on record.
On September 7, the Libyan government website said the country has no stake in BP or any other international oil firms, countering speculation to the contrary. [AP/21September2010]
F.B.I. Spying Not Fueled by Politics, Report Says. Despite an uproar in 2006 over the disclosure that federal agents had investigated dozens of domestic political advocacy groups, the Federal Bureau of Investigation was motivated by concerns that members of the groups might commit crimes and was not spying on them because of their political views, a Justice Department report said on Monday.
Still, the 209-page report, by the office of Inspector General Glenn A. Fine, criticized the F.B.I. for classifying certain nonviolent crimes related to protest activities as terrorism. And it sharply attacked the bureau for making a series of "false and misleading statements to the public and to Congress" about its surveillance of an antiwar protest on Nov. 29, 2002.
Despite such criticisms, an F.B.I. spokesman, Michael Kortan, said Monday evening that the report's most important finding was that after "an exhaustive review of hundreds of investigative decisions the F.B.I. made after the Sept. 11 attacks," Mr. Fine's office "did not uncover even a single instance where the F.B.I. targeted any group based on the exercise of a First Amendment right." Nor, Mr. Kortan said, did the report suggest "any significant modifications" of the bureau's investigative powers.
The report involved investigations of antiwar, environmentalist and animal rights groups from the 2001 terrorist attacks through much of the administration of President George W. Bush.
In the case of the 2002 protest, an F.B.I. agent who attended the event filed a two-page account labeled "results of investigation of Pittsburgh antiwar activity" that was disclosed to the American Civil Liberties Union as part of a larger response to several Freedom of Information Act requests in 2006. It detailed leafleting by people associated with the Thomas Merton Center, which the agent described as a "left-wing organization" that advocated pacifism, to protest the coming Iraq war.
The account described the leaflets as making such claims as that Iraq had no weapons of mass destruction and raised questions about whether the center was linked to Muslims. The agent also photographed an activist who "appeared to be of Middle Eastern descent" and submitted her picture to terrorism analysts.
After the A.C.L.U. made the report public, the bureau's press office told reporters that the agent attended the protest "as a direct result of information provided to the F.B.I. related to an ongoing investigation." Later, the F.B.I. director, Robert S. Mueller III, told Congress that the agent was trying to "identify an individual who happened to be, we believed, in attendance at that rally."
In fact, the inspector general found, this story was false: a supervisor had sent the agent to the protest as a "make-work" assignment to see if any subjects of Pittsburgh terrorism investigations "happened to show up without having any reason to think any of them would be there."
The agent later told the inspector general's office that he had gone overboard in carrying out that task because he was a recent hire, and he described the report as "atrocious" and a "horrible mistake," saying he could "understand why people would become inflamed about it."
In 2006, officials in the Pittsburgh office apparently came up with the story that the agent had attended the protest in search of a specific individual as part of a terrorism investigation - a false "after-the-fact justification" that made its way into the press statement and briefing materials for Mr. Mueller.
The investigators were also unable to determine who was responsible for the false account. But the report emphasized that there was no reason to believe that Mr. Mueller deliberately misled Congress.
The report also criticized several episodes in which it characterized F.B.I. agents as opening or continuing investigations despite scant evidence of a federal crime, and it criticized classifying some nonviolent protest-related actions, like trespassing on a military base, as "terrorism" matters. As a result, it said, some people are being inappropriately put or kept on terrorism watch lists.
The inspector general report did note that rules limiting F.B.I. investigations were relaxed in 2002 and eased further in 2008. As a result, one problem documented in the report - keeping information in F.B.I. files related to political activities deemed irrelevant to potential criminal or terrorist activity - is no longer improper. The report suggested that the restriction be reinstated.
Michael German, a former F.B.I. agent who is now with the American Civil Liberties Union, which filed some of the Freedom of Information Act requests that led to the disclosure of the investigations, also said the guidelines were too lax.
Mr. German argued that the report showed that "the rules designed to limit the F.B.I. don't protect wholly innocent people from being spied on for their political activities" because agents are authorized to take steps like sending informants to spy on groups based on very little reason for suspicion that they might commit a crime. [Savage/NYTimes/21September2010]
Israelis Float Settlement Deal Involving Spy. Israeli officials have tried to float a trade-off in which they would extend the temporary moratorium on settlement construction in exchange for the release by the United States of Jonathan Jay Pollard, the American who pleaded guilty to spying for Israel and is serving a life term in an American jail, Israel's Army Radio reported Monday.
The idea would be that the exchange might help Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu of Israel to sell an extension of the partial settlement freeze on the West Bank to his rightist ministers, the radio said. The moratorium is due to expire on Sunday, and Palestinian leaders have threatened to halt the fledgling American-sponsored peace talks with the Israelis if construction resumes.
The radio cited an unnamed diplomatic official as saying that the proposal had been raised in the Israeli prime minister's office "as one of many ideas." It said a private individual had been asked to try to gauge the potential of such an initiative "discreetly and informally" with American officials.
"The Israelis have mentioned it in recent days," said a senior American official. "This is an important issue for Israeli governments going back more than a decade. It surfaces from time to time and has again."
Israeli officials in Jerusalem had no immediate comment.
Mr. Pollard, who worked for the Navy as a civilian intelligence analyst, began spying for Israel after he approached an Israeli officer in 1984. He was sentenced three years later to life in prison, and several American presidents have refused previous Israeli requests to commute his sentence.
Mr. Netanyahu made Mr. Pollard's case a bargaining point in negotiations with the Palestinians in 1998, during his first term as prime minister. Mr. Netanyahu told President Bill Clinton that he needed Mr. Pollard's release to win support for a peace agreement, senior American officials said at the time. [Kershner/NYTimes/21September2010]
Beating Cyber Intelligence Espionage "Relatively Straightforward," MI5 Chief Says. The Internet has increased the risk of intelligence espionage but beating or preventing it is "relatively straightforward", said Jonathan Evans, head of M15, the British intelligence agency.
Evans said that, "The overall likelihood of any particular entity being the subject of state espionage has probably never been higher, though paradoxically many of the vulnerabilities exploited both in cyber espionage and traditional espionage are relatively straightforward to plug if you are aware of them."
Also known by its official name as the Security Service, MI5 handles counter-intelligence espionage. Evans earlier warned British companies about online threats, specifically from hackers linked to China's intelligence network.
"Cyber security is a priority for the government both in respect of national security and economic harm," Evans said.
Intelligence espionage and online security are important topics which are included in the ongoing Strategic Defense and Security Review to determine, among other considerations, if funding needs to be increased to shore up efforts against cyber threats. [Enriquez/SeerPress/21September2010]
Chinese Authorities Threatening to Kill Me, B.C. Reporter Says. RCMP have launched a "very serious" investigation into a B.C. reporter's claims that Chinese officials are threatening to kill him for his critical coverage of the government.
Tao Wang moved to Surrey, B.C., from China in 2007 and began working as a reporter for the Canadian branch of Falun Gong-affiliated New Tang Dynasty Television in July 2009.
Most of his assignments for the international broadcaster have been innocuous, on topics such as the Olympics and the harmonized sales tax.
Some of his reports, however, have been critical of the Chinese government and its practices. NTDTV is one of the few networks with dissenting views that broadcasts in the Communist nation.
"Some of the reports I think they don't like are on David Matas, the Nobel Prize nominee and human-rights lawyer who spoke at the International Congress of the Transplant Society in Vancouver, talking about his investigation regarding organ harvesting of Falun Gong practitioners in China," Mr. Wang said. "I've also done reports on (CSIS director) Richard Fadden's comments about foreign interference on Canadian governments."
He said the threatening phone calls from China's Ministry of State Security began a month ago and have escalated to death threats.
Surrey RCMP Const. Peter Neily confirmed the detachment's major crimes section has launched an investigation.
"We're taking this very seriously and we're in the process of speaking with witnesses and trying to determine followup from here," Const. Neily said. "We're engaged with the complainant in creating a safety plan. We'll review their current arrangements ... to make sure they're safe while we investigate our file." [Woo/NationalPost/20September2010]
CIA Inputs Help Nab ISI Agent. Is this another form of outsourcing? With the intelligence set-up in India facing constant flak, Delhi police seems to have found an ally in the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The Special Cell of Delhi police has arrested a Pakistani Spy from Samalkha village of Delhi. The CIA had passed on relevant information to authorities here. This is not the first time the Americans have helped Indian security agencies.
The accused Sajjad Haider alias Mohd Parvez was arrested on the 14th of this month from Delhi. The accused was carrying a fake Indian Visa.
"We received information from CIA about the Pakistani spy hiding in Delhi. Then we developed the inputs about the accused and arrested him from Samalkha village. Confidential documents related to Indian Army, a fake Indian driving license, an Indian PAN card on fake identity along with Western Union money transfer receipts, rent agreements, mobile SIM cards, phones etc have also been recovered from his possession and from his rented accommodation in Samalkha," said a police officer.
In the interrogation the accused allegedly revealed that he is a Pakistani national who had been sent on a spying mission to India by his Pak-based handlers and he had been asked to collect information regarding movements of armed forces and details of cantonment areas of Punjab.
"He was trained in military trade craft by ISI agents for five months at Lahore. After arriving in India he immediately gathered the forged documents. He revealed that he entered into India illegally via Indo-Bangladesh Border in September 2009 and came to Delhi. He went about the task of procuring forged identity documents for himself which would facilitate him in creating a base for carrying out his mission successfully."
"He also revealed that as per the instructions of his Pakistani mentors, he had received the confidential documents/information from another source in Delhi and the same was to be sent to one of his Pakistani handlers via Dubai (UAE) through courier," the officer added.
On August 23, city cops arrested Mohammad Shah Jalal from Majnu Ka Tila in north Delhi and busted a fake visa racket in the process. The inputs came from CIA. "We received secret information from the CIA about a Bangladeshi national involved in human trafficking with fake Nepali visas to send citizens of his own country to other nations," said a police officer. [Anand/Mid-Day/20September2010]
German Police Arrest Man Who Allegedly Gathered Intelligence for Libyan Spy Network. German prosecutors say a man suspected of gathering intelligence for Libya's intelligence agency in western Europe has been arrested.
Federal prosecutors said that the man, only identified as Omar K., is suspected of spying on exiled supporters of the North African country's opposition.
They said the 45-year-old is suspected of spying under the oversight of alleged Libyan agent Adel Ab., who already has been charged with leading a network of people gathering information on the Libyan opposition in Germany and western Europe.
Another Libyan who allegedly worked for Adel Ab. also has been charged.
Prosecutors say police arrested Omar K. in the eastern city of Halle. They didn't give his nationality. [AP/20September2010]
US Runs Afghan Force to Hunt Militants in Pakistan. The Central Intelligence Agency runs an Afghan paramilitary force that hunts down Al-Qaeda and Taliban militants in covert operations in Pakistan, a US official said.
Confirming an account in a new book by famed reporter Bob Woodward, the US official told AFP that the Counterterrorism Pursuit Teams were highly effective but did not offer details.
"This is one of the best Afghan fighting forces and it's made major contributions to stability and security," said the official, who spoke on condition of anonymity.
The 3,000-strong paramilitary army of Afghan soldiers was created and bankrolled by the CIA, designed as an "elite" unit to pursue "highly sensitive covert operations into Pakistan" in the fight against Al-Qaeda and Taliban sanctuaries, according to The Washington Post, which revealed details of the new book.
Revelations about a US-run unit operating in Pakistan are sure to complicate Washington's ties with Islamabad as well as Afghanistan's difficult relations with Pakistan.
Pakistan's government said it was unaware of any such force and the military flatly denied its existence.
"We are not aware of any such force as had been mentioned or reported by the Washington Post," foreign ministry spokesman Abdul Basit told reporters.
"But our policy is very clear, we will never allow any foreign boots on our soil... so I can tell you that there is no foreign troops taking part in counter-terrorism operations inside Pakistan."
Asked by AFP about the newspaper report, military spokesman Major General Athar Abbas said it was "not true".
"No foreign body, no foreign militia, no foreign troops are allowed to operate on our side of the border. Anyone found doing so will be fired upon," he said.
US President Barack Obama has sought to pile pressure on militant havens in Pakistan through a stepped up bombing campaign using unmanned aircraft as well as US special forces' operations in Afghan territory.
The administration also has pressed Pakistan to go after the Taliban and associated groups in the northwest tribal belt.
The US military's presence in Afghanistan and its covert drone strikes in the border tribal belt are subject to sharp criticism and suspicion in Pakistan.
Based on interviews with top decision makers, including Obama, Woodward's book describes the US president as struggling to find a way to extricate US troops from the Afghan war amid acrimonious debate among advisers and resistance from the military. [AP/22September2010]
Two Russians Detained on Suspicion of Spying for China. Two Russian scientists are being held in a high-security Moscow prison while being investigated on suspicion of spying for China.
The two men, Svyatoslav Bobyshev and Yevgeny Afanasyev, who are both university academics, are being held in Lefortovo jail while being investigated for "high treason and espionage."
Lefortovo was used by the KGB in Soviet times and by its successor FSB, or the Federal Security Service, since 1995.
On Wednesday, Bobyshev's defence lost an appeal against his pre-trial detention, the Interfax news agency reported, citing the Moscow City Court.
The two men teach at Voenmekh University in Saint Petersburg, an engineering school with a military slant, working in a department that specialized in technical equipment for rockets and space vehicles.
They also lectured at China's Harbin Technical University as part of an exchange program.
Bobyshev's daughter said Wednesday that the claims were absurd.
"My father read lectures whose entire content was checked a thousand times. All of his colleagues are shocked," Bobyshev's daughter Yekaterina told AFP.
"I am sure this case is part of FSB's spy mania," she said.
Voenmekh University refused to comment on the case on Wednesday.
The charge of high treason could lead to a jail sentence of up to 20 years.
The detentions come after a number of scientists and academics have been jailed on grounds of espionage in recent years.
Arms expert Igor Sutyagin was convicted in 2004 of handing over classified information to a British company that Russia claimed was a CIA cover, and sentenced to 15 years in jail, although he denied his guilt.
He was freed as part of a high-profile spy swap earlier this year, when 10 Russian agents were flown back from the United States after their embarrassing exposure.
The 10 Kremlin agents had been arrested in an FBI swoop that initially threatened to derail a warming in Russia-US relations championed by President Dmitry Medvedev.
Many ex-KGB spies have gone on the record slamming the shoddy and apparently antiquated spycraft of the 10, who were working for the Russian Foreign Intelligence Service (SVR), a successor of the Soviet KGB.
One of the deported spies, the glamorous Anna Chapman, last month sparked a new scandal after appearing in a racy photo shoot published by tabloids. [AP/22September2010]
Gimigliano Departs, CIA Has a New Top 'Voice.' CIA spokesman Paul Gimigliano is turning over his megaphone to his deputy.
"I am delighted to report that Director [Leon] Panetta has asked George Little to head the Office of Public Affairs here at CIA," the spokesman said in a farewell announcement to The Reporters Who Regularly Cover Spies.
"George is, of course, an exceptionally talented veteran of this unit, someone who has built an impressive reputation for candor and responsiveness," Gimigliano maintained. "He's been a superb deputy. I leave this operation, and the extraordinary colleagues who give it life each day, in the very best of hands."
The lifetime Phillies fan then made a last stab at spinning the announcement with a characteristic comedic riff.
"To me, six years of dealing with the press seems like a very long time," he said. "For those who dealt with me, it may have seemed even longer.
"The CIA is no stranger to controversy," he added. "It comes with the mission - and this period was by no means a quiet one. But it was always a privilege to represent the tremendous men and women of this organization, who, in anonymity, do the difficult work of national security."
Gimigliano, who previously worked in the agency's intelligence directorate analyzing information gathered by secret agents and technical wizardry, said "the time to move has come." He said he was going on to another assignment at the agency.
His successor has been an agency spokesman since 2007. For two years previous to that, Little worked at the National Counterterrorism Center, or NCTC. Little also holds a PhD in international relations from Georgetown University
"With George at the helm, apart from countless improvements, you shouldn't notice any change at all," Gimigliano cracked. [Stein/WashingtonPost/23September2010]
Medal for Japanese-American WWII Soldiers. Congress passed a measure that would award a Congressional Gold Medal to Japanese-Americans who volunteered to fight for the U.S. in World War II even as their loyalty to the country was questioned.
The House passed the legislation by voice vote Thursday, one month after the Senate approved it. The measure now goes to President Obama for his signature.
"These men served the nation at a pivotal moment in our history, displaying their heroism and courage on two fronts: abroad in the fight against an absolutist fascism and at home in the face of the intolerance of racial injustice," said Rep. Adam Schiff, D-Calif., the bill's chief sponsor in the House.
The legislation gives the medal collectively to those who served in the 100th Infantry Battalion, the 442nd Regimental Combat Team and the Military Intelligence Service.
About two-thirds of the service members were from Hawaii, with the remainder coming from the mainland.
The veterans served even though they were branded "enemy aliens" and rendered ineligible for the draft. Some, particularly those from the mainland, enlisted while their families were detained in internment camps.
The 442nd Regimental Combat Team, which absorbed the 100th Infantry Battalion during the war, saw some of the most brutal fighting in the war. The unit suffered some 800 casualties in France rescuing the "Lost Battalion" of the 36th Division.
By the end of the war, it had become the most highly decorated military unit in U.S. history for its size and length of service.
Japanese-American congresswoman Rep. Mazie Hirono, speaking on the House floor, recounted the experiences of three veterans, including Kobe Shoji, father of University of Hawaii women's volleyball coach Dave Shoji. The elder Shoji was ordered to leave Pomona College to move to a camp in Arizona with his family. He enlisted in the Army the next year and was wounded twice fighting in Europe with the 442nd.
"Their perseverance, humility and strength enabled them to triumph over life's adversities. We must never forget the Japanese-American men and women ... who nobly served to defend their country at a time when their patriotism was in doubt," said Hirono, D-Hawaii.
Her Republican colleague from Hawaii, Rep. Charles Djou, said the medal was a sign of well-deserved respect from Congress. The men's willingness to volunteer to serve despite facing discrimination earned them the honor, he said.
Rep. Jim McDermott, D-Wash., said the experience of the Nisei, or second-generation Japanese-Americans, should be remembered so the U.S. doesn't treat another group of Americans the same way.
"We're in a time now when their example needs to be carefully looked at. Because panic in the American public says 'Oh, those people need to be feared. We can't stand those people. They're not like us,' " McDermott said. "What happened in 1941 can happen again if we do not honor those Nisei vets and those families who stayed at home."
Rep. Patrick Kennedy, D-R.I., drew comparisons with Arab-Americans who are serving in the military and fighting terrorism while being stigmatized and being judged "less American" because of their ethnicity.
The medal would be given to the Smithsonian Institution, which would make it available for research and display it in places associated with the units. The legislation authorizes the Treasury to make bronze duplicates.
The highest civilian honor awarded by Congress has been given selectively since 1776, when George Washington was awarded the first. Other honorees include the Wright Brothers, Thomas Edison, Rosa Parks and the Dalai Lama. The Tuskegee Airmen, the first group of black fighter pilots, received the medal in 2007. [MarineCorpsTimes/23September2010]
Norway to Probe Evidence in Espionage Case Against Ex-Diplomat. An independent Norwegian review panel Friday said it would study the evidence used to convict a former top diplomat who in 1985 was given a 20-year sentence for espionage.
Recent book and newspaper disclosures have suggested some of the evidence against Arne Treholt may have been fabricated.
Treholt, now 67, was arrested in 1984 and given a 20-year sentence the following year for handing over classified information to the Soviet Union and the Iraqi intelligence service.
Since his 1992 release for health reasons, Treholt has tried to clear his name. He currently lives in Cyprus.
The review commission in 2008 rejected an appeal from Treholt to get a new hearing.
After Friday's announcement, Treholt told news agency NTB it was 'a box on the ear of the Norwegian Prosecuting Authority,' headed by Tor-Aksel Busch, one of the prosecutors in Treholt's trial.
According to the new book Forfalskningen (roughly The Fabrication) and newspaper accounts, the secret police illegally bugged Treholt's Oslo apartment and also fabricated evidence to secure a conviction, including wads of cash photographed in Treholt's briefcase during a secret search of the flat prior to his arrest.
Busch issued a statement welcoming the commission's decision.
Earlier this week Busch asked the commission to review some of the evidence over speculation that some of it might have been fabricated.
Saeter said the commission, which was created in 2004, would start the review immediately but could not say when it would be completed. [MonstersAndCritics/25September2010]
Spy Agencies Target Iran-Norway Ties. Iran's foreign minister has called on Norway to keep third parties and spy agencies from meddling in Tehran-Oslo relations.
Manouchehr Mottaki said certain moves by third countries and spy services aimed at interfering in Iran-Norway ties can 'weaken' mutual relations, reported Fars news agency.
Mottaki made the remarks in a meeting with his Norwegian counterpart Jonas Gahr Store in New York on the fringes of the 65th conference of the United Nations' General Assembly.
The top Iranian diplomat also touched upon the 'destructive' role of the Mujahedin Khalq Organization (MKO) in Norway, saying that the terrorist group is trying to damage Iran-Norway ties.
Mottaki then turned to Tehran's peaceful nuclear program, and added Iran's entitlement to civilian atomic work has to be recognized first for any negotiations to be fruitful.
The Norwegian foreign minister, in turn, underlined the need for a diplomatic settlement of the standoff over Iran's nuclear program.
He also said his country is committed to its relations with Iran. [PressTV/25September2010]
Detained Afghan Journalists Freed. Three Afghan journalists held by coalition forces and Afghanistan's intelligence service for allegedly spreading Taliban propaganda have been freed, Nato has said.
They were all detained over the past week, with Rahmatullah Naikzad and Mohammad Nadir held by the Nato-led coalition and Afghan security forces, and Hojatullah Mujadad by the Afghan intelligence service.
Nato said all three had been freed, a move which comes after an outcry from fellow media workers and a call from President Hamid Karzai for their quick release.
Mr. Naikzad, who has worked for Al-Jazeera and as a freelancer for the Associated Press, was detained by coalition forces in the eastern town of Ghazni.
"After reviewing the initial intelligence and information received during questioning, the two men were not considered a significant security threat and were released," said Rear Admiral Gregory Smith. "During their brief detention, they were treated humanely and in accordance with international law and US policies."
Mr. Naikzad said he was not mistreated, but his eyes were covered and his hands were bound. He said he was not given proper time for prayer.
Mr. Nadir was detained on Wednesday morning at his home in the southern city of Kandahar. Coalition troops woke up his wife and forcibly removed him from his bedroom as they searched the house, Al-Jazeera said in a statement.
Mr. Naikzad was arrested in his home on Monday. Nato said three grenades, magazines and a "significant number of AK-47 rounds" were found in the compound where he was detained. It is common for Afghans to keep weapons for self-protection.
Mr. Mujadadi, a radio station manager in Kapisa province, north of Kabul, was arrested by Afghan agents on Saturday. Nato said in a statement that he was freed by Afghan authorities as well.
The arrests sparked an angry reaction from Afghan media workers, journalism advocates and human rights groups, and Mr. Karzai called for their quick release. [AP/25September2010]
State Secrets Cited in Effort by White House to Block Suit. The Obama administration on Friday completed a legal brief that asks a federal judge to throw out a lawsuit seeking to stop the government from killing an American citizen accused of ties to Al Qaeda.
The brief, which was due on Friday and was expected to be filed shortly before midnight, includes the contentious argument that litigating the matter could reveal state secrets, according to two Justice Department officials familiar with the contents.
The lawsuit was filed by the father of Anwar Al-Awlaki, a radical Muslim cleric who was born in New Mexico and is believed to be hiding in Yemen. Officials accuse the younger Mr. Awlaki of planning attacks for Al Qaeda's Yemen branch, and he is believed to be on a "targeted killings" list for the military and the Central Intelligence Agency.
The lawsuit seeks an injunction to block the government from killing him. It contends that without an imminent threat, killings away from a combat zone are extrajudicial executions. And it rejects the notion that the United States' war against Al Qaeda extends to Yemen.
Within the administration's legal team there is wide consensus that it is lawful to target Mr. Awlaki. But some lawyers had disagreed on what arguments they should muster to have the lawsuit dismissed. In the end, the faction favoring a more expansive approach won out.
While the government's brief did not confirm that Mr. Awlaki was being targeted, it contended, among other things, that his father, Nasser al-Awlaki, had no legal standing, that targeting decisions are for the executive branch to determine and that litigating the matter would jeopardize state secrets. The brief also included a classified annex.
Attorney General Eric H. Holder Jr. approved making the state-secrets argument. Matthew Miller, a Justice Department spokesman, said it was necessary in this case.
"It strains credulity to argue that our laws require the government to disclose to an active, operational terrorist any information about how, when and where we fight terrorism," Mr. Miller said. [Savage/NYTImes/25September2010]
Section II - CONTEXT & PRECEDENCE
Office of Intelligence and Analysis: Who is Caryn Wagner? A 30-year careerist in the field of intelligence, Caryn A. Wagner has served as the under secretary in charge of the Office of Intelligence and Analysis in the Department of Homeland Security since February 2010.
Born September 22, 1957, in Columbus, Georgia, Wagner received a Bachelor of Arts degree in English and history from the College of William and Mary in 1979.
After working as a short-order cook and waitress at a delicatessen in Williamsburg, Virginia, she began her career in the U.S. Army, serving eight years as a signals intelligence and electronic warfare officer, leaving active service as a captain in October 1987. That same year, she earned a Master of Science degree in systems management at the University of Southern California.
From February 1988 until May 1990, Wagner worked as an Army intelligence research specialist.
She joined Booz Allen Hamilton as an associate in May 1990,working in the areas of tactical exploitation of national capabilities, support to military operations, intelligence planning and intelligence systems architecture development.
In May 1993, she left Booz Allen to work on Capitol Hill as a staff member of the Program and Budget Authorization Sub-Committee of the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence.
Beginning in November 1995, she spent a year as staff director of the Subcommittee on Technical and Tactical Intelligence, also part of the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence. Her responsibilities included oversight of technical collection and processing capabilities in the National Intelligence Program and Military Intelligence Program.
From November 1996 to November 2000, Wagner worked for the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) as the director of the Military Intelligence Staff at the Pentagon. In this position, she conducted military intelligence community planning and was responsible for development and management of the General Defense Intelligence Program. She served as an associate member of the Military Intelligence Board (MIB) and oversaw the MIB secretariat. She also managed the implementation of the Joint Intelligence Virtual Architecture, a defense intelligence community-wide effort to modernize intelligence analysis and methods.
From November 2000 until April 2003, Wagner served as DIA deputy director for analysis and production at Boling Air Force Base. She was also the production functional manager, responsible for orchestrating analysis and production by analytic elements of the military services, the combatant commands other defense agencies.
For one year she served as the senior DIA representative to Europe and as liaison to the United States European Command (EUCOM) and to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
From May 2004 to April 2005, she was the executive director for intelligence community affairs at the CIA, making her responsible for the Community Management Staff, which provided strategic planning, policy formulation, resource planning, program assessment and budget oversight for the Intelligence Community.
Wagner then served from April 2005 through January 2007 in the Office of the Director of National Intelligence as an assistant deputy director of national intelligence for management and the first chief financial officer for the National Intelligence Program.
She went back to Congress and served as budget director and cyber security coordinator for the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, until October 1, 2008.
Wagner then took a position as an instructor in Intelligence Community management for The Intelligence and Security Academy, LLC, a private company that trains both members of both government agencies and private security firms. She also worked briefly as a substitute teacher in the Arlington County Public School system in Virginia.
Wagner is a long-time member of the Intelligence and National Security Alliance and the National Military Intelligence Association. She has volunteered for the Democratic Party in Virginia and contributed money to the Democratic National Committee ($630) and the presidential campaign of Barack Obama ($660).
Wagner is married to Carlyle Lash, a high school English teacher. [Brinkerhoff&Wallechinsky/AllGov/26September2010]
China Builds its Own High-Tech Military. China's military is nearly self-sufficient in building advanced weaponry following decades of importing aircraft, ships, submarines and missile technology, mainly from Russia, and the capability is raising new fears of Chinese military hegemony in Asia and arms exports to rogue states.
New capabilities to produce high-tech arms means defense policymakers in the Asia Pacific and in Washington are being forced to adjust their strategies for dealing with the emerging power of the communist nation's military forces over the next three to five years, according to defense analysts in the West and Asia.
In addition, China's increasing independence from Russian imports of defense technology will allow Beijing to export a raft of high-tech weapons to nations that seek modern-day armaments but cannot purchase what they want from U.S. or European suppliers.
Countries buying Chinese weapons will not be in the position that Iran was in the 1980s, when it purchased low-tech Silkworm anti-ship missiles from Beijing: They were not an optimal solution for the Iranians, but it was all the Chinese defense industry could offer.
Today, if Iran wanted a modern air force backed up by air defense systems, anti-ship missiles and radar networks, it could purchase them from China tomorrow.
"It is somewhat of a tragic story when you look back more than 20 years," a Russian defense analyst, who was once a senior engineer at one of Moscow's most important military enterprises, told The Washington Times. "After the end of the Cold War and when Russia was going through some very difficult economic times - defense industry here indicated their very clear preference to work with their U.S. counterparts, but most of these plans never were realized.
"When the U.S. more or less took a pass on working with Russian industry, the heads of all of our defense enterprises that were full of hungry, unpaid employees had no place to go other than to work with the Chinese."
The U.S. could have put its hands on a cornucopia of defense technology for very reasonable money, but instead Washington laid the foundation for China to become a modern military power in a rather short time - something that would never have happened so quickly without Russia's assistance," he said. "It will cost America far much more in the long run now to counter China's increasingly capable defense posture than it would have to just buy up what was available from Russia in the early 1990s."
The Republic of China (Taiwan) is wishing the U.S. had been more prescient.
A Defense Intelligence Agency report disclosed that Taiwan's air force has only 350 aircraft, many of them aging Northrop F-5s and 20-year-old Lockheed Martin F-16A/B models. Arrayed against them within striking distance from the mainland are more than 450 of China's top-line J-10, J-11 and Su-30MKK fighters, which outclass most of Taiwan's aircraft.
In addition, thanks to the transfer of precision guidance technology from Russia to China, about 1,300 short-range ballistic missiles are targeted from China against most of Taiwan's air force installations.
Specialists from Taiwan's military based in Taipei told the Washington Times that the assumption by defense officials on the island is that most of the air force facilities - including the runways - would be destroyed before the force could get off the ground. "The only aircraft to be airborne would be those already on patrol, but they would have no place to land," said one analyst who has visited Taiwanese air force bases and interacts regularly with the Taiwanese military.
Taipei is seeking to purchase from Washington a shipment of newer F-16s, especially the more advanced F-16C/D Block 50+ variant, but the Obama administration has not granted the request. Also, another request for a badly needed upgrade of the older F-16A/B models already in service with the Chinese air force is not on the table.
Analysts who have focused on China's People's Liberation Army say there is no mechanism for taking away the technology China has assimilated from Russia. "The genie is out of the bottle," one analyst said.
There is also little question that the PLA is "feeling its oats. That it has come into its own with an entire lineup of high-tech weapons at a time when China is becoming the world's second largest economy - and when China is the one nation in the world that is not afflicted with anemic economic performance," said a senior academic at Peking University's prestigious School of International Relations.
Beijing went on a defense spending spree, purchasing from Russia a wide array of high-tech weaponry, including fighter jets, attack helicopters and missile systems. Chinese engineers then copied the designs of these arms to create Beijing's own line of modern warfare tools - such as the J-11B fighter jet, which is a copy of the Russian Su-27SK aircraft.
What's more, Chinese engineers have been modifying designs to improve some weapon systems. The Moscow-based Center for the Analysis of Strategies and Technologies, a private defense and foreign policy think tank, reported recently that China's military has developed a modification of the engine that powers the Su-27SK fighter jet that extends the operational life of the engine from 900 flight hours to 1,500 flight hours - a noteworthy achievement in aerospace technology.
The Russian defense analyst said the U.S. deserves some blame for his country's contribution to China's emerging defense industry. "[The] shortsightedness by the U.S. government in the 1990s has come back to haunt them. [Johnson/WashingtonTimes/21September2010]
Geospatial Intelligence. A picture is worth a thousand words: a lesson every intelligence officer learns. Every day satellites in the sky capture the comings and goings of nations around the world. These images may provide the missing piece to the puzzle that can help keep the nation safe.
The Intelligence Community (IC) refers to the use and analysis of geospatial information to assess geographically referenced activities on Earth as geospatial intelligence (GEOINT). It is everything you can see or know about the earth.
GEOINT consists of:
* Imagery - a likeness of any natural or man-made feature, as well as its location.
* Imagery Intelligence (IMINT) - information derived through interpreting imagery.
* Geospatial Information - information that identifies a natural or constructed feature on Earth by its geographic location and other characteristics.
The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) is the prime producer and functional manager for national and allied GEOINT efforts for the IC. CIA analysts often use NGA products to complement their analysis of a situation in finished intelligence.
GEOINT is a layering of multiple sources, including imagery, IMINT, and geospatial information. No one source can do it all. The final product is intelligence that can answer questions such as:
* Where am I?
* What are the natural and man-made structures?
* What does the area look like now? What might it look like after an event?
* What do we need to prepare for?
* Where are our allies? Where are our enemies? Where might they move?
GEOINT provides invaluable information about the activities of our adversaries that may help shape foreign policy. [Johnson/CIA.Gov/21September2010]
Our views: Mr. Madison, Spy Master? Was James Madison the first U.S. president to use covert operations to advance the overthrow of a foreign government?
That was the intriguing question posed by historian John Anderson Stagg during the Hemispheric Freedom Symposium. Participants in the recent Baton Rouge gathering honored the 200th anniversary of the West Florida Republic and reflected on the wider history of independence movements in the Spanish colonies of the Western Hemisphere.
One such Spanish colony existed in what is now Louisiana. But in 1810, many area residents tired of the arrangement, captured a fort at Baton Rouge, and declared the area an independent state, the Republic of West Florida.
The fledgling republic included all of the Louisiana parishes from Slidell to Baton Rouge. Some residents were in favor of remaining independent, while others wanted annexation to the United States.
President James Madison resolved the dispute by proclaiming that the United States always had considered West Florida a part of the 1803 Louisiana Purchase. In December 1810, Gov. William C.C. Claiborne of the Orleans Territory took control of the fort at Baton Rouge by force.
Stagg, editor-in-chief of the Madison Papers at the University of Virginia, said Madison sent an agent to this area to discreetly help speed the collapse of Spanish rule. But Madison's apparent goal was to bring the area under the U.S. flag, not to stir the creation of a separate republic.
"Madison did not want an independent West Floridian nation on the Gulf Coast," Stagg told listeners gathered at the Manship Theatre of the Shaw Center for the Arts.
In annexing the West Florida Republic by force, Madison "overthrew a government of American settlers. So much for self-determination," Stagg said.
"Maybe the CIA would be proud to claim this operation as their own," said Stagg, referring to the Cold War cloak-and-dagger operations that Madison's clandestine maneuvering seemed to anticipate. "I don't know."
Like many aspects of history, Madison's precise role in the West Florida rebellion might never be known, but we're glad sponsors of the Hemispheric Freedom Symposium gathered so many stellar minds to explore such questions.
The symposium was sponsored by the Baton Rouge Area Foundation, the Irene W. and C.B. Pennington Foundation and LSU's Paul M. Hebert Law Center.
The gathering was a fitting observance of the West Florida Republic's bicentennial - and a timely reminder that political intrigue in Louisiana has a very long tradition. [2TheAdvocate/27September2010]
Section III - COMMENTARY
Korean War Spy Rivalries Persist 60 Years Later, by Jeff Stein. Far be it that the week should pass without noting that it was 60 years ago on Sept. 15 that allied troops under Gen. Douglas MacArthur pulled off one of military history's greatest feats: a surprise landing behind North Korean lines on the Inchon Peninsula.
Not satisfied with that, as historians also note, MacArthur then turned his triumph into a Shakespearean tragedy by driving his troops north to the Yalu River on China's border, supremely confident that Beijing would not react.
It did, of course, in large numbers, dooming tens of thousands of U.S. and allied troops to cold, bitter deaths, not to mention his own command, in time.
The CIA, in its infancy then, didn't see the Chinese coming. As University of Chicago historian Bruce Cumings notes in his new book on the Korea War, "On September 20 the CIA envisaged the possibility that Chinese 'volunteers' might enter the fighting, and a month later it noted 'a number of reports' that Manchurian units might be sent to Korea."
However, the CIA reported, "the odds are that Communist China, like the USSR, will not openly intervene in North Korea."
Even after Gen. Walter Bedell Smith, the CIA director at the time, noted that the Chinese feared a U.S. invasion of Manchuria and would likely react, the agency's combined analysts "still found insufficient evidence to suggest a Chinese plan for 'major offensive operations,' " Cumings writes.
The People's Liberation Army launched sharp attacks in late October, then withdrew. MacArthur plunged forward. Chinese units would come south again, in force, a month later.
But the CIA can't be held entirely responsible for the intelligence failings in Korea - far from it. In a criminal lapse that would be echoed on another September day 51 years later, U.S. intelligence agencies were more at odds in Korea than in harness.
"When the CIA was formed," Cumings writes, "it threatened MacArthur's exclusive intelligence theater in the Pacific... MacArthur and [his intelligence chief Charles] Willoughby thus continued the 'interdiction' that they practiced against the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) in the Pacific War. Operatives either had to get permission from Willoughby or hide themselves from MacArthur's G-2 (as well as the enemy target).
"Effective liaison in the handling of information," Cumings writes, "barely existed."
And so it went. On Christmas Day almost 60 years later, the Nigerian "underwear bomber" Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab nearly brought down a Northwest airliner with hundreds of passengers aboard.
Later reviews cited a lack of coordination in U.S. intelligence for the ability of the would-be bomber to get on the plane. [Stein/WashingtonPost/17September2010]
Newsweek: Nine Years After 9/11, Intelligence Sharing Is Still Hobbled. More than nine years after 9/11, America's intelligence-sharing system continues to be impeded by legal and technical difficulties. As a result, important intelligence reports may be slow to reach those officials who could take action on them.
One such problem surfaced in Congress earlier this week: a glitch in the wording of the Freedom of Information Act. The trouble is that when frontline agencies like the CIA and National Security Agency transfer "operational" files to the national intelligence director's office - or to the National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC), a branch of the intelligence czar's office created to ensure greater sharing of intelligence on terror threats - those files are more vulnerable to FOIA disclosure than they were before they left the originating agency.
Years ago, in an effort to strengthen secrecy protections for intelligence sources and methods, Congress passed a special provision exempting the operational files of CIA, NSA, and other Pentagon spy agencies from FOIA disclosure. But these special protections don't apply to copies of such records once they are shared by CIA or Pentagon spies with a third party like the NCTC. Neither the NCTC nor the intelligence czar's office is covered by the exemptions that apply to files maintained by CIA and Pentagon agencies. Although frontline agencies are supposed to share counterterrorism threat reporting with the NCTC even if it is from "operational" message traffic, officials are worried about the legal implications - so worried that NCTC director Michael Leiter cryptically alluded to the issue at a congressional hearing earlier this week on terror threats against targets inside the U.S. Intelligence officials have discussed the problem only in secret until recently.
A pending intelligence bill includes a provision to extend protection to operational reports shared with the NCTC and the intelligence czar's office, but final passage has been held up by House Speaker Nancy Pelosi, who considers the bill too weak in the area of intelligence oversight. In the face of this deadlock, intelligence officials are stewing over a whole list of potential problems. The legal glitch could deter frontline spies from sharing critical secrets; it could force the NCTC to waste time and money screening sensitive documents; it could even result in federal judges ordering public disclosure of intelligence secrets. (Most government experts believe that a secret CIA or NSA spy report remains legitimately classified and thus exempt from public release, even if it's shared with the NCTC.)
But there's still another problem. At present, the NCTC can only wish it had a Google-style system that could instantly search a broad range of intelligence databases for information about a given suspect, or about a particular phone number or address. That goal is made difficult enough by a constant proliferation of secret databases and special rules, but it's even harder to achieve thanks to the FOIA loophole, according to four U.S. officials familiar with the issue, all of whom ask not to be named when discussing sensitive information. As things stand, if "all-source" analysts at an interagency unit like the NCTC want to check out some information in operational files held by CIA, NSA, or a Pentagon agency like the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency (which analyzes spy-satellite images), they have to query each database separately. It gets worse, officials say: the NCTC deals with no fewer than 30 separate government data networks, which in turn connect to more than 80 government databases, many of which have to be searched individually due to legal or security issues. Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano told Congress last week that her department has no fewer than 47 databases that could be relevant to counterterrorism. [Newsweek/24September2010]
Espionage 2010 Style: Assassinating Computers Rather Than People? by Barbara White. The Stuxnet malware program being discussed on the Internet is a high-level program apparently created to destroy one specific target: some type of manufacturing plant. Some experts think it is targeting something in the area of Iran, Pakistan, India, and Indonesia, maybe even the Iranian Bushehr nuclear power plant.
Some go so far as to describe it as a weapon.
Is this the new wave of espionage? Gone are the days of James Bond and 007-style assassinations? Is the latest thing to be a phalanx of uber-geeks slaving in a dimly-lit, underground office?
Maybe so. According to the Christian Science Monitor, this new bit of malware has caught the attention of computer researchers, that's for sure.
In a way, this might be a better way to do battle ... rather than bombs and missiles, risking the lives of young men in the armed forces, perhaps we will move into the science fiction-like world of computer attacks.
Reuters reports that the only problem with that picture is they aren't sure what this program will do, once it finds its intended target. If it only takes down a computer system or slows down production, it wouldn't cause the deaths of innocent by-standers. However, if it's designed to, say, stop the cooling fans in a nuclear plant, the local effects could be dramatic and devastating.
Science fiction writers are once again vindicated ... they've been writing about this kind of warfare for years. I've been waiting to see what the "next new thing" was going to be, and I've even daydreamed of someone crashing a particularly annoying foreign government by email spam attack, but even a jaded SF-fan like me was surprised by this new cyber-weapon.
It's an eye-opening suggestion of what we may see in the future. Maybe all the cyber attacks we've been reading about were merely a cyber-nursery - a playground - for the next generation of Spy vs. Spy. Scary thought.
Also scary is the thought that they've gotten good enough to do this. If one person/group can do it, others can, too. [White/Gather.com/25September2010]
Section IV - BOOKS, OBITUARIES, JOBS AND COMING EVENTS
MI6 Spies Wallowed in Edwardian Nudes, Gaffes, Champagne. It has taken a century, but Britain's MI6 intelligence service is finally emerging, blinking, into the light of day.
Until the 1980s, MI6 didn't officially exist. In the 1990s, it got a flashy new headquarters fronting the River Thames. And today its early history has been revealed in "The Secret History of MI6, 1909-1949" by Keith Jeffery, a professor of British history at Queen's University Belfast.
The Secret Intelligence Service, as it's formally known, was set up in 1909 to monitor Germany's arms buildup before World War I. It started out as a one-man band.
Its first director, Mansfield Cumming, was a gifted and vigorous naval officer who donned a toupee and false moustache for clandestine meetings and signed his memos "C," a name his successors adopted. He was also a fan of Edwardian pornography, or, as he put it, a student of "the female form divine."
Everything you have ever heard about the perils and pleasures of spying was there from the beginning. Turf wars with diplomats were legion, prompting the British ambassador to Paris, Sir Duff Cooper, to write that "a diplomatist has as much right to consider himself insulted if he is called a spy as a soldier has if he is called a murderer."
The reputation of intelligence men for high living, burnished by Ian Fleming's James Bond, was often deserved. One of Cumming's earliest agents demanded a champagne allowance. Beautiful female spies were deployed from the start to lure enemies into spilling their secrets. And, yes, agents really did conceal messages, jewels or suicide tablets in signet rings and the like.
"Capital sport," was how Cumming once described his profession. That was before two world wars and the Soviet threat helped MI6 expand into a powerful instrument in the struggle against Fascism and Bolshevism. The British Empire made the agency active across the globe, and the "Ultra" intelligence gathered by British code breakers enhanced its reputation.
What grabs our attention, though, is the less familiar story of the Anglo-American intelligence relationship. Cooperation began early, against Moscow's Comintern and all manner of subversives. Yet in the 1930s MI6 was still gathering intelligence on U.S. soil about aircraft development, chemical warfare and Irish nationalists, among other things. Only in 1938 did it stop, on the grounds that it was quicker to ask the FBI or the U.S. military attach� in London.
Then came the golden era of William "Wild Bill" Donovan, the American military man who headed what became the wartime Office of Strategic Services. In 1940, the U.S. ambassador to London, Joseph P. Kennedy, was telling American industrialists that they should look to Adolf Hitler for their markets because Britain could never hold out. Donovan, an Anglophile, was convinced it would.
Donovan had the ear of both President Franklin Delano Roosevelt and FBI chief J. Edgar Hoover. His championing of close ties with MI6 was at the root of the Anglo-American special relationship in the intelligence field.
This is an official history, though not so official that Jeffery disguises the failures, defections and defeats. One was MI6's clumsy handling of the notorious Zinoviev letter, a forged instruction from Moscow to the British Communist Party that helped topple Ramsay MacDonald's Labor government in 1924.
Then came the Venlo Incident of 1939, when senior British agents were seized in a Nazi trap in the Netherlands. We read, too, of the junior MI6 man who failed to hand the Foreign Office information about the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, under which Germany and the Soviet Union carved up Poland. And the shortsighted ban on MI6 operations in Russia that lasted till 1949, a hangover from the wartime alliance with Moscow.
Another major shortcoming was the tight social circle that enabled senior MI6 man and Soviet spy Kim Philby to betray his country for so long. Moscow recruited one British operative, George Blake, after he was captured in the Korean War.
MI6 successes were nonetheless impressive - the work with the French Resistance, the warning about Germany's development of V-2 rockets, and the exploits of the MI6 head of station in Berlin, Frank Foley, who used his cover as a passport control officer to rescue Jews.
Jeffery's book is presented without sensationalism, and it's all the more imposing for that. Espionage buffs will eagerly await the next volume, though we shouldn't hold our breath. As the material becomes more sensitive, who knows how long the security clearance will take?
"The Secret History of MI6" is published by Penguin Press in the U.S. and by Bloomsbury in the U.K. under the title "MI6: The History of the Secret Intelligence Service 1909-1949" (810 pages, $39.95, 30 pounds). George Walden, a former U.K. diplomat and member of Parliament, is a critic for Muse, the arts and leisure section of Bloomberg News. [Walden/Bloomberg/21September2010]
Antonina Pirozhkova, Engineer and Widow of Isaac Babel, Dies at 101. Antonina Pirozhkova, who as the widow of the renowned short-story writer Isaac Babel campaigned for more than half a century to keep his literary legacy alive after his execution by Stalin's K.G.B., and who wrote a memoir about the last seven years of his life, died on Sept. 12 at her home in Sarasota, Fla. She was 101.
The death was confirmed by her grandson, Andrei Malaev Babel.
Ms. Pirozhkova, a rising young engineer, met her future husband shortly after she began working at the State Institute for Metallurgical Design in Moscow in 1932. She was 23. He was 38 and separated from his first wife, Yevgenia Gronfein.
The two began living together in 1934, and in 1937 she gave birth to a daughter, Lidiya.
After her husband's arrest in 1939, Ms. Pirozhkova (pronounced peer-ush-KOVE-uh) was advised by a K.G.B. interrogator to forget the matter. "Regulate your life," she was told. Instead she spent the next 15 years trying to discover her husband's fate.
In 1954 she received his death certificate. It bore the false date of March 17, 1941, implying that he had died during World War II. Ms. Pirozhkova then successfully lobbied for Babel's official rehabilitation, which was granted later in 1954.
Not until the mid-1990s did accurate information emerge about Babel's date of execution, Jan. 27, 1940, and about the 20-minute trial that took place the day before he was shot. He had been charged with belonging to an anti-Soviet Trotskyite organization and with spying for France and Austria.
During and after her life with Babel, Ms. Porizhkova continued her engineering career. At the Metroproekt Institute, which she joined in 1934 and where she rose to chief designer, she helped plan the crown jewels of the Moscow subway system: the Mayakovsky, Pavelets, Kiev, Arbat and Revolutionary Square stations.
For many years she was the only woman employed as a subway engineer in the Soviet Union.
After retiring in 1965, she devoted her life to reclaiming her husband's legacy, fighting with the authorities for permission to publish his works, organizing public memorials and commemorations of his birth and helping scholars do research in her personal archives, stored in her apartment in Moscow.
She was particularly concerned with securing the return of unpublished manuscripts seized by the K.G.B. Their fate remains unknown. In 1972 she compiled and published, in Russian, "I. Babel Recalled by His Contemporaries," a collection of firsthand biographical material. Babel's "1920 Diary," which she transcribed, presented the raw material that the author drew on for "Red Cavalry," his most celebrated work. The diary was published in the United States by Yale University Press in 1995.
The two-volume collection of Babel's works that Ms. Pirozhkova compiled and edited remains the most complete edition in Russian. It was published in 1990.
Her memoir, "At His Side: The Last Years of Isaac Babel," was published in the United States by Steerforth Press in 1996 and in 2001 appeared in a Russian edition.
Sharply written and full of insights about Babel's character and life under Stalin, the book was well received. "Babel would have enjoyed Ms. Pirozhkova's book, concise and full of bright incident," Richard Lourie wrote in The New York Times Book Review.
Ms. Pirozhkova recalled Babel's dismay at her haphazard reading habits, which he tried to correct by drawing up a list of the "hundred books that every educated person needs to read." It included a volume titled "The Instincts and Morals of Insects." She recounted evenings spent with Soviet cultural giants like the film director Sergei M. Eisenstein and visits by foreign luminaries like Andr� Gide and Andr� Malraux.
But her most telling lines concerned Babel, portrayed as generous, shrewdly observant, subversively witty and, despite the shadow of the executioner's ax, coolly fascinated by the secret police.
She recalled riding to the Lubyanka, the K.G.B. headquarters, in a car with two K.G.B. thugs on the night of Babel's arrest. "I could not say a single word," she wrote. "Babel asked the secret policeman sitting next to him, 'So, I guess you don't get much sleep, do you?' And he even laughed."
Antonina Nikolaevna Pirozhkova was born on July 1, 1909, in Krasny Yar, a village in Siberia. Her father died when she was 14, and she supported the family by tutoring students in math.
Her high school diploma noted her "outstanding abilities" in mathematics, physics and literature, and in 1926 she entered Tomsk Technological Institute, where she studied construction and engineering.
After graduating with an advanced degree in engineering in 1930, she was assigned to one of the Soviet Union's prize industrial projects: Kuznetskstroi, a large metallurgical plant being built near Novokuznetsk.
After working on the Moscow subway, she was assigned to the Moscow Institute of Transportation Engineers, where, as a teacher in the Bridges and Tunnels Department, she trained subway designers and wrote two sections for the standard textbook "Tunnels and Subways." In 1996 she moved with her daughter to the Washington suburbs to be near her grandson and his wife. In addition to her daughter, of Sarasota, she is survived by her grandson and a great-grandson.
When Ms. Porizhkova arrived with Babel at the Lubyanka, she and her husband kissed. He told her, "Someday we'll see each other," and walked into the building without looking back.
"I turned to stone, and I could not even cry," Ms. Porizhkova wrote. "For some reason I kept thinking, 'Will they at least give him a glass of hot tea? He can't start the day without it.' " [NYTimes/23September2010]
Whitney E. Reed, NSA Official. Whitney E. Reed, 80, who retired in 1993 as deputy director for education and training at the National Security Agency and commandant of its National Cryptologic School, died Sept. 4 at his home in Bowie. He had brain cancer.
Mr. Reed started his NSA career in 1952 as a linguist. He was a past vice president and board member of the National Museum of Language, a small College Park museum that teaches the history of the world's languages.
Whitney Edward Reed was born in Glens Falls, N.Y. He received a bachelor's and a master's degree in Germanic languages from Boston University, in 1950 and 1952, respectively. He received a master's degree in international affairs from George Washington University in 1956 and a master's in national security strategy from the National War College at the National Defense University in 1970.
His wife of 26 years, Lilymae Wright Reed, died in 1979.
Survivors include his wife of 30 years, Frances Clark Reed of Bowie; three children from his first marriage, Thomas Reed of Hanover, Pa., and Melinda Formento and Jonathan Reed, both of Cape May Court House, N.J.; two brothers; and four grandchildren. [WashingtonPost/22September2010]
New Business Development Executive. CARCO Group, Inc., a privately held 34 year old information services company, is looking to hire an experienced professional to serve in a client relations and new business development capacity for services in background screening, know your customer, and due diligence.
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. 10 years minimum law enforcement experience preferred
For more information on CARCO Group, Inc., please visit www.carcogroup.com.
Please send all inquiries and resumes to email@example.com.
Subject Matter Expert with Legal and Technical Background. CER Consulting, LLC is seeking a consultant with strong legal and technical writing skills to support complex and demanding projects in the defense and national security arena. The successful candidate will prepare and deliver briefs, written analyses, and presentations addressing technical issues and policy considerations in the defense and national security environment.
Minimum qualifications include:
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Interested individuals should send a letter of application and CV to firstname.lastname@example.org.
EVENTS IN COMING TWO MONTHS....
MANY Spy Museum Events in August with full details are listed on the AFIO Website at www.afio.com. The titles for some of these are in detail below and online.
29-30 September 2010 - Washington, DC - Conference on the American Experience in Southeast Asia, 1946-1975 by the U.S. Department of State.
The U.S. Department of State's Office of the Historian is pleased to
invite AFIO members to a conference on the American Experience in
Southeast Asia, 1946-1975, which will be held in the George C.
Conference Center at the State Dept. The conference will feature a
number of key Department of State personnel, both past and present.
Those speaking will include:
* Former Secretary of State Henry A. Kissinger
* Former Deputy Secretary of State John D. Negroponte
* Special Representative for Afghanistan and Pakistan Richard A. Holbrooke
The conference will include a panel composed of key print and television media personnel from the Vietnam period discussing the impact of the press on public opinion and United States policy. A number of scholarly panels featuring thought-provoking works by leading scholars will also take place. Registration information will be available at the State Dept website, http://history.state.gov, after August 1.
Thursday, 30 September 2010; 12 noon - 1 pm - Washington, DC - Stalin's Romeo Spy: The Remarkable Rise and Fall of the KGB's Most Daring Operative - Event at the International Spy Museum.
Dmitri Bystrolyotov was a man out of the movies: dashingly handsome and fluent in many languages, he was a sailor, artist, doctor, lawyer, and artist. He was also a spy for Stalin's Soviet Union. By seducing women, including a French diplomat, the wife of a British official, and a Gestapo officer, he was able to deliver many secrets back to his masters in Moscow. His espionage career came to an end in 1938, however, when he was caught up in Stalin's purges. Sent to the Gulag for twenty years, he suffered tremendous physical hardship but he also came to see the reality of the regime for which he had spied. Join us for a fascinating talk about Bystrolyotov's rise to greatness and fall from Stalin's graces with author Emil Draitser, once a journalist in the Soviet Union and now a professor at Hunter College in New York. Free! No registration required! Join the author for an informal chat and book signing. More information at www.spymuseum.org
2 October 2010, 1000 - 1430 - Salem, MA - The AFIO New England Chapter Meets to hear three outstanding intelligence speakers.
The event features three outstanding speakers. The first speaker
will begin his presentation at 1030. We'll work in the next 2 speakers
and lunch at 1200. We'll adjourn at ~1430.
Our speakers will be: Major Bryan K. Pillai, Chapter Member Edward M. Jankovic, Author John Weisman.
Bios of the three speakers are available from: email@example.com
Location: the Salem Waterfront Hotel located in Salem MA. The hotel web site is here: http://www.salemwaterfronthotel.com/. For directions to the hotel look here: http://www.salemwaterfronthotel.com/location.html
Information about Salem MA and local hotels can be found here: http://salem.org/
Note, as this meeting is a one day event we have not made any hotel arrangements. For additional information contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org
Advance reservations are $25.00, $30.00 at the door - per person. Luncheon reservations must be made by 15 September 2010.
Mail your check and the reservation form to: Arthur Hulnick, 216 Summit Avenue # E102, Brookline, MA 02446; 617-739-7074 or email@example.com
Saturday, 2 October 2010, 6:30 pm - Washington, DC - William J. Donovan Award Dinner Honoring Ross Perot by The OSS Society
The OSS Society celebrates the historical accomplishments of the OSS during WWII through a William J. Donovan Award Dinner. This year the annual dinner honors Ross Perot. Event includes special performance by humorist Mark Russell. Black Tie/Dress Mess. Location: Mandarin Oriental Hotel, 1330 Maryland Ave SW, Washington, DC. By invitation. Tables of ten: $25,000; Table of ten: $15,000; Table of eight: $10,000; Table of Six: $5000; Seating of four: $3,000; One guest: $1,000. Some tickets available for $175 pp. Donations welcomed. Inquiries to The OSS Society at firstname.lastname@example.org
Tuesday, 5 October 2010; 6:30 pm - Washington, DC - Russian Illegals: The Spies Next Door - an Event at the International Spy Museum
"It's pretty shocking. I didn't think stuff like this still went on." --Scott Inouye, neighbor to two Russian spies On 29 June, 2010 Americans were stunned and then bemused to learn of the arrest of ten Russian "deep-cover" spies who had lived among us for decades as neighbors and Facebook friends-while at the same time operating with secret mission: to meet influential Americans and exploit them for their knowledge of government policy. "Illegals," like these spies, have been a Moscow specialty for years, but traditionally are used sparingly-for only the most sensitive of operations. Seldom has the U.S. government been able to find and arrest "illegals," so Americans are generally not aware of this threat. Join H. Keith Melton, renowned intelligence historian, technical advisor to American intelligence agencies, author of Spycraft: The Secret History of the CIA's Spytechs, from Communism to Al-Qaeda, and International Spy Museum board member, and Brian Kelley, counterintelligence specialist with over forty years experience as a USAF and CIA case officer specializing in double agent and deception operations, a recipient of the Distinguished Career Intelligence Medal, and currently adjunct professor at several graduate schools on counterintelligence and national security issues, as they shine a spotlight on the murky world of illegals: what they are, how they operate, and the threat they pose. With access to never-before-seen images, Melton will demonstrate both the classis and up-to-date spycraft used by these "spies next door." Retired KGB Major General Oleg Kalugin will also provide commentary based on his years running agents in the U.S. Tickets: $12.50 per person. Register at www.spymuseum.org
9 October 2010, 2 pm - Kennebunk, ME - The Maine Chapter hosts Israeli Col. (Ret.) Jonathan Fighel on Palestinian terrorism, Global Jihad, and the Use of the Internet for Terrorist Plots.
Col. Fighel has broad knowledge, both academic and operational, of Islamic terror groups and their funding, Palestinian terrorism, global jihad, and the use of the internet in terrorism. He has served in various operational intelligence gathering posts and a number of command positions on the West Bank, including Governor of Ramallah, Jenin and Tul-Karm. He is currently senior researcher at the International Policy Institute for Counter Terrorism (ICT) in Herzliya, Israel and head of the Prosecuting Terrorism Intelligence Unit there. Founded in 1996, the ICT is described as the leading academic institute for counter-terrorism in the world. Its mission is facilitating international cooperation in the global struggle against terrorism. A respected media commentator, Col. Fighel is frequently invited to lecture on security matters related to counter-terrorism to law enforcement agencies around the world including the Israeli Security Agency, FBI, N.Y. Police, and Scotland Yard. Col. Fighel holds an M.A. in Middle Eastern Studies from Tel Aviv University where he is currently a Ph.D. candidate. The meeting, which begins at 2 pm, is open to the public, will be held at the Community House, 8 Temple Street, Kennebunkport, across from the Kennebunkport Post Office, uphill from the municipal parking lot. For information call 967-4298.
Tuesday, 12 October 2010 - Tampa, FL - AFIO Suncoast Florida Chapter Luncheon Meeting featuring Rep. Kevin C. Ambler (R) AFB Officer's Club.
SPEAKER: Representative Kevin C. Ambler, District 47, who serves in
the Florida State House of Representatives. District 47 is located in
Northwest Hillsborough County. Representative Ambler attended Cornell
University on a four-year Air Force ROTC scholarship where he received
his Bachelor of Science degree in economics in 1983. Upon graduation, he
was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the United States Air Force.
In 1986, he received his J.D. from Southwestern University School of
Law in Los Angeles, California. Soon after, he was appointed as an Air
Force judge advocate and assigned to the Office of the Staff Judge
Advocate, MacDill Air Force Base, Florida, where he served for nearly 5
years in several positions including Chief of Claims, Chief of Legal
Assistance, Chief of Military Justice and Chief of the Civil Law
division. During this same time, he also was appointed by the U.S.
Attorney General as a Special Assistant United States Attorney and was
responsible for prosecuting criminal cases in federal court against
civilians arising on MacDill AFB. Later, his responsibilities expanded
to defending the United States in federal court in medical malpractice
and personal injury cases arising under the Federal Tort Claims Act.
Representative Ambler entered private practice and transferred to the
Air Force Reserves in 1991. During his first year as a reservist, he was
awarded the Harmon Award by the Air Force Judge Advocate General as the
Most Outstanding Reserve Judge Advocate in the U.S. Air Force.
Representative Ambler's other military decorations include the Air Force
Achievement Medal, two Air Force Meritorious Service Medals, and two
National Defense Services Medals.
RSVP no later than October 7th with the names of any guests. Check-in at 1130 hours; opening ceremonies, lunch and business meeting at noon, followed by our speaker, who will be announced. We have maintained the all-inclusive cost at $15. The cash wine and soda bar will open at 1100 hours for those that wish to come early to socialize. You must present your $15 check payable to "Suncoast Chapter, AFIO" (or cash) at check-in to cover the luncheon. Should you not have a 'bumper sticker' or ID card for access to MacDill AFB, please so state in your RSVP. Be sure to include your license number, name on drivers license and state of issue for yourself and for any guests you are bringing on base. Anyone with special roster gate access should proceed to the Bayshore Gate. If you need directions, please let us know. The main gate will send you to the visitor's center and they will not be able to help you enter the base, only give you directions to the Bayshore Gate. To register: email@example.com
Tuesday, 12 October 2010 - Columbia, MD - The NCMF [National Cryptologic Museum Foundation] Annual Meeting
There will be a panel discussion in the morning on "The Future of the Intelligence Community -- Too Big, Too Small, Just Right?" The panel will be moderated by Patrick Weadon and the panel will consist of Mr. Rich Haver, Lt. Gen (Ret) Ken Minihan and Ms. Rachel Martin. There will be a discussion on various aspects of the Cyber Command in the afternoon session. Details are available on the NCMF Web site at www.cryptologicfoundation.org. Invitations will be mailed to all active members shortly
Wednesday, 13 October 2010 - AFIO's Tom Smith New Mexico Chapter meets at Hyatt Regency Tamaya Resort
Contact Pete Bostwick at firstname.lastname@example.org to register for this luncheon meeting of the chapter. Takes place at the Hyatt Regency Tamaya Resort, Santa Ana Reservation. 11:00 AM: Buffet Lunch Served 11:30 AM.
$20.00 per person, including tax and gratuity. Since their staff must plan in advance for the right number of attendees, we will need an advance commitment from those planning to attend. We request that as soon as you decide (but NLT 7 Oct), please place your reservation with: 505-898-2649
13 October 2010 - Scottsdale, AZ - "The FBI's Evolving Domestic Intelligence Mission" is theme of AFIO Arizona Chapter Meeting by two FBI Professionals.
Mr. Steve Hooper and Mr. Mark Gygi will discuss the "FBI's Evolving Domestic Intelligence Mission." Hooper and Mr. Mark Gygi, who co-manage the Phoenix FBI's overall Intelligence Program, will be speaking on the FBI's Evolving Domestic Intelligence Mission, with an emphasis on how this intelligence mission impacts locally on things like the South-West border. Hooper has been an FBI Special Agent for more than 25 years. He has served in Portland, Baltimore, Annapolis, and FBI Hqs. He was detailed to CIA's Counterterrorism Center for a period after 9/11. He has been in the Phoenix office for 3 years, where he serves as Assistant Special Agent-in-Charge (ASAC) of the intelligence program. Gygi has been involved in the U.S. intelligence community for more than 25 years, having lived and served abroad for 13 plus years. His overseas assignments took him to Africa, the Middle East, Europe, and East Asia. As a senior officer he is currently detailed to the Phoenix FBI to co-manage the intelligence program for that Bureau office. He has been in Phoenix for 2 and 1/2 years. Event is being held at: McCormick RANCH GOLF COURSE (7505 McCormick Parkway, Scottsdale AZ 85258 ~ Phone 480.948.0260). Our meeting fees are as follows: $20.00 for AFIO members, $22.00 for guests. For reservations or questions, please email Simone email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org or call and leave a message on 602.570.6016. Art Kerns, email@example.com.
12-13 October 2010 - McLean, VA - NMIA Fall Counterintelligence Symposium - event will be held at the SECRET/NOFORN level
There have been significant changes to U.S. Counterintelligence in 2010, as well as challenges and opportunities. Hear the latest information on CI from the premier DIA Defense Counterintelligence and HUMINT Center Senior intelligence leaders from DIA who will discuss the entire CI Enterprise and CI training. Army, Navy, and Air Force leadership will address the latest changes to their organizations from their services perspective. The various Combatant Command CI representatives will provide the current CI picture from their particular geographic areas. A special Army and NATO CI unit will address CI issues in a wartime environment. The FBI will weigh in by discussing the latest issues concerning domestic CI threats and responses to them. The critical areas of CI analysis and the CI interface with cyber will round out the symposium. To register or for more information visit: https://www.123signup.com/event?id=mnszh
Wednesday, 20 October 2010, noon – 1 pm – Stealing Atomic Secrets: The Invisible Harry Gold - a program at the International Spy Museum.
Harry Gold was literally the man who handed the Soviets the plans
for America's nuclear bomb. A Russian-Jewish immigrant from Switzerland,
he became a spy for the Soviets while studying chemistry in the United
States during the depths of the Great Depression. His KGB code names,
such as "Goose" and "Mad," belied his importance as a liaison to
important spies within the scientific and engineering communities.
During World War II, he was entrusted to be the KGB's handler for
physicist Klaus Fuchs, who had burrowed deep into the Manhattan Project,
America's super-secret program to build an atom bomb. After Gold's
arrest in 1950, his testimony helped send Julius and Ethel Rosenberg to
the electric chair. Journalist and historian Allen Hornblum will help us understand how a decent and well-intentioned man helped
commit the greatest scientific theft of the twentieth century.
Free! No registration required! Join the author for an informal chat and book signing. More information at www.spymuseum.org
2010, Noon luncheon - - Washington, DC - The ABA Standing Committee on
Law and National Security luncheon at University Club
The luncheon features Richard Clarke on "Cyber Security." To register contact Holly McMahon, Staff Director, at 202-662-1035 or at firstname.lastname@example.org More information at www.abanet.org/natsecurity
Saturday, 23 October 2010, 10 am - Coral Gables, FL - "How We Know That You Are Lying: Explorations in the Science of Polygraphy" with John Palmatier, PhD -- at the AFIO Miami Chapter
Dr. John J. Palmatier of Slattery Associates/Dawn
Associates [ www.polygraphexperts.com] speaks at this Saturday morning
event hosted by the AFIO Ted Shackley Miami Chapter. The fee is $10 for
AFIO member; $25 for guests. No charge for U.S. Government employees,
military, students, faculty or law enforcement.
RSVP with check to Tom Spencer, 999 Ponce de Leon Blvd Ste 520, Coral Gables, FL 33134. Questions to 305 648-0940 or email TRSMiami@aol.com
28 October 2010, 0930- 1715 - Newport News, VA - AFIO Hampton Roads Chapter hosts 2nd Annual Workshop on National Security and Intelligence
Location: Christopher Newport University, Newport News.
Theme: Maritime and Port Security
We seek sponsorship at all levels to help cover costs. Please advise if you know of a company or organization that might like to sponsor the event.
Sponsorships start at $250. RSVP: Melissa Saunders email@example.com
29 October 2010, 11 a.m. - Tysons Corner, VA - Naval Intelligence Professionals (NIP) Fall Luncheon. To be held at Crowne Plaza Hotel in Tyson's Corner, VA Event ends at 2 p.m. Keynote speaker TBD.
29-31 October 2010 - Middletown, RI - The New England Chapter of the Naval Cryptologic Veterans Association (NCVA-NE) will hold a Fall Mini-Reunion. Event takes place at the Newport Beach Hotel and Suites. The registration cut-off date is September 29, 2010. For additional information, call (518) 664-8032 or visit http://web.meganet.net/kman/mr2010b.htm.
Tuesday, 2 November 2010, 6:30 pm - Washington, DC - Attack on Mumbai: A New Paradigm for Terrorism? - a program at the International Spy Museum.
"One of the gunmen seemed to be talking on a mobile phone even as he
used his other hand to fire off rounds." — Nisar Suttar, eyewitness,
On 26 November 2008, ten highly trained and disciplined men used covert intelligence and off-the-shelf technology to terrorize and immobilize the city of Mumbai, killing 166 people and wounding over 300. The attackers were able to effectively overwhelm the Mumbai police and Indian security forces utilizing integrated tactics, superior weaponry, and sophisticated covert communications that provided their Pakistani handlers with "real time" command and control as events unfolded. This change in tactics has presented a challenge for the West: how can we find ways to defend against similar attacks in the future? H. Keith Melton, renowned intelligence historian, technical advisor to American intelligence agencies, author of Spycraft: The Secret History of the CIA's Spytechs, from Communism to Al-Qaeda, and International Spy Museum board member, has thoroughly researched the planning and technology behind the attack. Using videotape of the surviving attacker's confession and intercepts of terrorist voice communications during the assault, he will offer a strategic overview of the attacks and explore the tactical phases, and the use by the terrorists of "commercial off-the-shelf" (COTS) technologies and the Internet. Tickets: $12.50 per person. Seating is limited. Register at www.spymuseum.org
13 - 20 November 2010 - Ft. Lauderdale, FL - SPYCRUISE to Grand Turks, Turks & Caicos; San Juan, PR; St. Thomas, USVI; and Half Moon Cay, Bahamas - with National Security Speakers Discussing "Current & Future Threats: Policies, Problems and Prescriptions."
SPYCRUISE�: A National Security Educational Lecture/Seminar Series.
The CI Centre and Henley-Putnam University are sponsoring a new
SpyCruise�, November 13-20, 2010. Join them on the Holland American MS Eurodam as they set sail from Ft. Lauderdale, FL to the Grand Turks, San Juan,
St. Thomas and Half Moon Cay in the Caribbean. Speakers include former
DCI’s Porter Goss and Gen. Michael Hayden plus many others. AFIO member and retired CIA operations officer Bart Bechtel continues his role as the “SpySkipper.” For more information about this year’s SpyCruise�, go to: http://spytrek.com/spycruise.html. RESERVATIONS: www.DFunTravel.com or call 1-888-670-0008.
Fees for an eight day cruise: $1,199 inside cabin; $1269 Ocean View Cabin; $1449 Verandahs; $1979 Suites. Price includes program, taxes, port charges and gratuities. Colorful brochure here.
Thursday, 18 November 2010, 6:30 pm - "Uneasy Alliance: The CIA and ISI in Pakistan" at the International Spy Museum
"CIA and ISI operatives depend on each other for their lives…" - so says an anonymous senior ISI official, December 2009
As the U.S. hunts down Al Qaeda leaders in Pakistan, the CIA appears to be working closely with the Pakistan Intelligence Service (ISI). But the two services have a long and rocky history with frequent betrayal by ISI members saying one thing, and aiding the Taliban behind-the-scenes. While the ISI has helped with the capture of Afghan Taliban leaders, some they have released Taliban figures they caught on their own. What is the future of this relationship? Are the CIA and ISI endgames compatible? Join this panel of experts as they explore what's opinions of what's happening on the ground in Pakistan and a few predictions for the future: Farhana Ali, senior lecturer, AFPAK Team, Booz, Allen & Hamilton; Seth Jones, RAND analyst and author of Counterinsurgency in Pakistan; and Shuja Nawaz, director, South Asia Center at the Atlantic Council of the United States.
Fee: Tickets: $12.50 To register, visit www.spymuseum.org
For Additional Events two+ months or greater....view our online Calendar of Events
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