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AFIO Weekly Intelligence Notes #37-99, 17 Sep 1999


WINs are produced by Roy Jonkers for AFIO members and subscribers

SYMPOSIUM ANNOUNCEMENT: The Director of Central Intelligence, the Honorable GEORGE TENET, has confirmed his acceptance of our invitation to participate in the AFIO Symposium at the NRO on 22 October. See Agenda and Registration at the end of Section IV, Bulletin Board. Also check our AFIO WEBSITES, or Members -- spread the word! Help put AFIO on the map. Sign up and take part!

MEMORABILIA ANNOUNCEMENT: AFIO memorabilia (mugs and caps, with AFIO emblem) now available. See Bulletin Board.

NEW EMAIL ADDRESS: Our AFIO Director of Administration, Mrs Gretchen Campbell, has a new email address - - - for Membership inquiries, Symposium Registration information, AFIO Memorabilia orders , or Changes of address (snail mail or email).

The AFIO Executive Director and WIN publisher , Roy Jonkers, can continue to be reached at email

MEMBERSHIP DRIVE -- Thanks to you, our members, we are going strong and growing. The WIN now goes to 1,120 addresses.

Winning sponsors were, Joseph BEYRLE, for sponsoring new member Allen Wenger - - WIN reader #1080; and Jeffrey STEWART, for sponsoring James McDougal - as #1090. The "grand prize winner" was Norton HALL, who sponsored new member Raymond Schaney as, WIN reader #1,100, reaching our August target (a double award). The first two winners will receive an inscribed book, and Norton gets a book and an AFIO mug. To all sponsors, our thanks and appreciation - you are keeping AFIO going and inspiring new programs and effectiveness in mission achievement. Well done! And welcome to all our new members! Keep them coming! Our September target is 1,200 WIN readers. Every member spoinsor a new member! (RoyJ)


TERRORISM IN RUSSIA - Five bombings of apartment houses in two weeks, in Moscow, Dagestan, and Volgodonsk, in southern Russia, with over three hundred dead and many more wounded, has led to public outrage, as it would here or in Israel. The first reaction to the explosions was confusion, disorientation and panic, but now people are preparing psychologically for a war against terrorists, and specifically against Czechen terrorists. The police cracked down hard, and rounded up 11,000 people. They then announced that a 29-year old Czechen man, Achemes Gochiyayev, was the ringleader of a gang, trained in Czechnia, responsible for the atrocity.

The terrorist bombings appear to be connected with the renewed war in the Czechnia/Dagestan area. The invasion of Dagestan by several thousand Czechens has been repulsed, but at a high cost (230 Russian soldiers killed, 875wounded). The Russians are pursuing the retreating Czechen guerillas with artillery and bombing attacks, reportedly flying at least 100 sorties against targets inside of Czechnia.

The radical islamicic warlords who run Czechnia ( Shamil Basayev and a terrorist by the single name of Khattab), appear to have set their sights on the conquest of Dagestan, in order to set up an islamic fundamentalist republic and to gain access to money-making oil assets. Dagestan is populated by a mixture of people (some 40 different entities, including some Czechens). The invading terrorist leaders had apparently counted on support from the Islamic Dagestan population, but the opposite appears to have occurred. Dagestani young men volunteered to fight with the Russian forces against the invaders.

Dagestan is a strategic asset in terms of Russian access to the Caspian Sea and the oil and gas reserves in the area. A pipeline now carries oil and gas from Azerbaidjan through Dagestan (and Czechnia, where a good deal of it is being stolen) to Novorossisk on the Black Sea. The Russian Government has now ordered a new pipeline to be constructed that will bypass Czechnia.

A connection between these events and the Great Game (previously referenced in the WIN) for control of the strategic Caucasus / Caspian area and its tremendous oil and gas reserves cannot be discounted. In politics as in nature, weakness or vacuum attracts forces. Whether the Russians have the military and financial capacity and the political will, as well as the political and battlefield intelligence assets, to bring this area under control remains to be seen. Others are ready to step in.

As for now, Prime Minister Vladimir Putin won the support from the Duma for tough anti-terrrorist measures, including "harsh and rapid action," and a "quarantine" along the Czechen border, after showing a film depicting atrocities committed by the Czechens. As a Moscow paper put it "Sooner or later the Russian authorities will have to face the question every 'shrinking empire' encounters, namely: Where does the last line of retreat, to be held at all costs, lie?" (NYT 18 Sep pA3 (Gordon); 19Sep99, p. 4 (Wines)) (RoyJ)

RUSSIAN MONEY LAUNDERING - - Stories about corruption and money-laundering in Russia abound in the daily press again, centered on a NY bank. That is merely the tip of the iceberg. There is little doubt that hundreds of billions have been bilked out of Russia, by Russians and by more than 100,000 foreigners who descended on Moscow in the 1990's, since 1991. There is no surprise here. There are no safe places in Russia to stash money, so it is all parked elsewhere - in Cyprus, Israel, Switzerland, off-shore islands, the US or UK. Open sources indicate that the FBI and the CIA, as well as other nation's intelligence and security agencies, have been tracking the money flows for years. (Roy)

RUSSIAN - US Y2K WATCH CENTER - - The US and Russian have reached an agreement to establish a Y2K joint watch center in Colorado to watch for any false alarms caused by Year 2000 computer glitches. The joint center is a prudent step to avoid confusion in the event early-warning or launch detection systems malfuntion. Up to 20 Russian military officers will be assigned to the Center for Strategic Stability and Y2K, at US Space Command headquarters, during late December and early January. Establishment of a permanent early warning system center in Moscow will also be discussed. Russia as well as China are forecast to have Y2K problems, according to the State Department listing the Y2K situation in all foreign countries at (NYTimes, 4Sep 99; WPost 11 Sep 99, p. A9; Fairfax Jrnl 15Sep 99, p. A6; Matthew Brzezinski in Wpost 17Sep p. A25; The Economist Aug 28-Sep3rd, p.17) (RoyJ)

CIA WARNING OF INFOWAR THREATS - - - Foreign governments may be building secret trap doors for entry into Government and Corporate computer networks, with the help of their programmers doing US and global Y2K-related work, as part of the growing arena of information operations.

The term "information operations" includes such nefarious arts as network hacking, denial-of-service attacks or insertion of computer viruses ( among others) in order to gain access to or disrupt computer networks, now central to national defense as well as modern banking, commerce and the civic telecommunications infrastructure.

CIA representative Terril Maynard, who works with the FBI National Infrastructure Protection Center , indicated recently that Israel and India are the leading suspects in the Y2K backdoor construction, because they each handle a large amount of Y2K software repair. According to the CIA, the two countries are avidly working on their information warfare capability and are planting trapdoors wherever they can. Israel allegedly has already successfully hacked into US networks to obtain into information about the Patriot missile.The U.S. Department of Defense has stated that it has also experienced network-based attacks coming from Russia. Others, like Cuba and Bulgaria, are working on computer-virus weapons.

Maynard recommended that Information Technology (IT) departments of CORPORATIONS closely examine the Y2K code that went in their systems and also run extensive checks on network security.

HERF GUNS: In a related development, a number of nations are also said to be building a new type of high-energy radio-pulse weapons - - called High Energy Radio Frequency (HERF) guns - - that can disrupt or destroy the electronics in networks as well as in cars, airplanes and other equipment, by sending a high energy beam at them. A lot of money is being spent on these and other types of "cyber weapons." The question is - - how long will it be before rogue elements, terrorists and criminals are able to use these types of devices? Cheap "homemade" devices, using less than $1,000 worth of material, have already been demonstrated.

Obviously, the information age brings fortune and capabilities, but at a price of new types of vulnerabilities. It is clear that Intelligence, Counterintelligence, Security and Law Enforcement are in the thick of a rapidly growing, highly technical, new silent war - - cyberwar.

NOTE: This topic will be covered in AFIO's "Intelligence 2000" Symposium. See registration below. (Ellen Messmer, Network World 09/13/99) (courtesy Ray Sanford (RoyJ)

ADMINISTRATION ENDS OPPOSITION TO EXPORT OF CRYPTO SYSTEMS - The nation's software industry gained the right to export software that encrypts electronic communications, overriding long-standing law enforcement and defense reservations and opposition. Encryption software is seen as critical for the continued growth of electronic commerce, and American companies can now compete with foreign industry in the international marketplace.

At the same time, the Administration proposes to introduce legislation called the Cyberspace Electronic Security Act of 1999, which would give the FBI $80 million over the next four years to establish a new code-cracking unit. Earlier drafts of this legislation included provision that would allow law enforcement officers to secretly search computers and disable secrecy codes as a prelude to wiretapping, but this provision has been dropped. It is not clear from open sources whether this means that the FBI is setting up a unit competing with NSA in code-cracking, which would not make much sense, or that it will be an FBI "Information-Operations" element specifically targeted on criminals and terrorists.

The planned legislation is also intended to prevent passage of industry-backed legislation , the Security and Freedom Through Encryption (SAFE) act, sponsored by Rep. Robert Goodlatte (R-VA) that would go even further to remove export curbs and limits. (Wpost 17Sep99 p.A1 &8) (RoyJ)


US COMMANDER EVALUATES YUGOSLAV WAR OPERATION - - Joint Task Force Commander Admiral James Ellis has published a critique on the Yugoslav military operation that has relevance for intelligence and information operations, and is useful as a basis for evaluating tactics of a-symetric warfare in both political and military dimensions. The military perspective is on fighting and winning a war ordained by the political authorities, in the most effective and efficient way possible. Some of his points:

SENSORY OVERLOAD - - Information saturation is additive to the traditional fog of war . The plethora of sensor information can lead to information-overload for the commander and staffs. Commanders now can monitor the battlefield through sensor input and sophisticated .modeling, but uncontrolled, "it will control you and your staffs and lengthen decision-cycle times." The information overload is also applicable to intelligence as well as private industry.

VIDEO TELECONFERENCING - - used properly, a great asset for coordination among allied commanders, but used improperly (read excessively) , it can become a voracious consumer of leadership and key staff working hours. "There is no substitute for campaign planning and written orders."

INFORMATION (WARFARE) OPERATIONS (IO) - Not used enough. Although a joint task force level IO cell was activated, and the tools were in place, only a few were used. "Properly executed, IO could have halved the length of the campaign." The ability to use computers to shut down an adversary's operations was under-utilized.

AIR DEFENSE SUPPRESSION AND INTELLIGENCE - - Yugoslavia used smart low technology tactics to deal with the superior US and allied forces and attacks. They used (turned on) their intergrated air defense system (IADS) only intermittently to conserve their capability. The Yugoslav military was clearly aware that the standard US Air Force approach calls for destroying an adversary's air defense system at the outset of a conflict, allowing non-stealthy U.S. and allied planes to fly relatively unhindered for the remainder of the campaign. Leaving their mobile radars turned off for most of the war allowed Yugoslav forces to maintain a threat against allied aircraft without squandering its own targeting assets. As a result, NATO aircraft were limited to flying above 15,000 feet for most of the war, and hundreds of potential ground targets were left intact. "After 78 days of hard campaigning, we effected little degradation on a modern IADS system." The Yugoslav military's "redundant systems and well-trained operators [had] the discipline to wait for a better opportunity."

Their continued threat potential - - and the Yugoslav success in shooting down a US F-117 stealth fighter plane - - required the US to field "significant ISR [ Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance] and SEAD [suppression of enemy air defense] assets and efforts throughout the campaign," according to Ellis. These assets are in short supply. Admiral Ellis advocates that we adapt doctrine, train and equip for this type of "smart" antagonist and a-symetric warfare environment. As for ISR and SEAD assets, he said "We do not leave home without them, and without them we cannot leave home." A nice compliment for intelligence. (Elaine Grossman, 9 September 1999) (RoyJ)

RUSSIAN GOVERNMENT, INTELLIGENCE AND CRIME -- - Markus Wolf, who headed East Germany's foreign intelligence service from 1952 to 1986, provided an opinion of the selection of another Russian Intelligence operative, Vladimir Putin, as Prime Minister of Russia - that may ring a chord with old spooks. "The common view of spies is that they are shadowy operators, dwellers on the dark side . . . such characterizations are grossly oversimplified. On the whole, the spies I have know have been extremel;y well read, highly intelligent, politically informed people. They have often been blessed with great leadership and managerial skills. And they have been intimately familiar with the tactics of deception - - a skill that can have great advantages for political maneuvering. In the West, men like George Bush and Yitzak Shamir of Israel have been respected leaders after having led their country's espionage agencies. So it is not surprising that former eastern spymasters are accepted in the role of prime minister or even president."

It may be noted that Valadimir Putin is the third intelligence operative to become Prime Minister - - his two predecessors also came from that field of endeavor. This may be attributable to the characteristics Markus Wolf identifies - or with the need to have someone in charge who can control the revelations on corruption that could damage any of the currently contending political figures or parties. (RoyJ)


THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD: THE MITHROKHIN ARCHIVE, by Christopher Andrews and Vaily Mitrokhin, soon to be published, received a good deal of pre-publication publicity in the London Times this week. The book is based on a " treasure trove" of top-secret information that a former KGB senior archivist, Vasiley Mitrokhin, purloined from his agency's files during a period of at least twelve years. Mithrokin said that the British Embassy in Latvia had helped him to travel to England after the local CIA officials allegedly had turned him down. He brought six trunks of notes and copied documents that filled in many missing pieces in the Cold War intelligence puzzle. His motivation for leaving after the breakup of the Soviet Union was said to be his disgust with his intelligence bosses. Be that as it may, his information promises to be interesting and possibly useful.

One of the more sensational announcements was the identification of Mrs Melita Norwood, 87, a member of the British communist party, as a longtime spy for the Soviets. She was said to have been a more important spy than Kim Philby. She contributed thousands of photographed secret documents from the British Non Ferrous Metals Research association. Mrs Norwood never accepted any financial reward. Said she "I did what I did not to make money but toi help prevent the defeat of a system which had at great cost given ordinary people food and fares which they could afford, good education and a health service." The Norwood treason began in 1937 and reflected a broad trend among British socialists favorable to the communist ideals - - an attitude that persisted long after there was abundant evidence of Stalin's totalitarian excesses. Prosecution of Mrs Norwood is under consideration.

The Mitrokhin papers show that the KGB intercepted White House and State Department communications (no great surprise there), and that they tapped into the telephone lines of major American defense industries, where they also planted spies. These efforts enabled Soviet engineers to take shortcuts and build weapons based on American designs.

Another note of interest was that the KGB's Service A took credit for crafting Philip Agee's book, "Inside the Company," a slanderous attack on the CIA. Service A was the KGB's disinformation and covert action section that launched numerous anti-American campaigns, many of which are detailed in the book - - which should have good sales after this advance publicity. (Wpost 12Sep99, p. A27 (Drozdiak) ; (WashTimes p. A5) (Bill Gertz) Sep 15) (RoyJ)

DARK SECRETS - - In a book review on several recent books dealing with the history of espionage in The Economist, a sentence occurred that raised a question with a number of members. "More bizarrely, for a substantial fee paid by their publisher to the Association of Retired Intelligence Officers, some authors were given access to thousands of documents in the KGB files, a treasure chest that has subsequently been closed." Now AFIO was known as the Association of Retired Officers in the early days, but the reference here is not to AFIO cum ARIO. As Sam Halpern enlightened us, the ARIO referenced in this paragraph refers to the Russian organization of retired officers. Rest assured, this has nothing to do with AFIO.

The article, incidentally, referenced the following books:

(1) Venona: The Greatest Secret of the Cold War, by Nigel West, Harper-Collins, 384 pages;

(2) Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America, by John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Yale: 487 pages;

(3) The Crown Jewels: The British Secrets Exposed by theKGB Archives, by Nigel West and Oleg Tsarev, Yale, 366 pages;

(4) The Haunted Wood, by Alen Weinstein and Alexander Vassiliev, Random House, 402 pages. (The Economist, Aug 28, 1999; p. 67) (RoyJ)


NEW AFIO MEMORABILIA - members can now order (1) AFIO mugs (white, with red and blue AFIO symbol) , or (2) AFIO caps (dark blue, adjustible size, with AFIO insignia in red and blue on grey background) . Both are tasteful tokens of AFIO membership and can be ordered by sending a check for $22.00 (for each item - - - cost includes shipping and handling charges, and a $12 tax-deductible donation to AFIO) to: AFIO, 6723 Whitter Avenue, Ste 303A, McLean Va, 22101-4533. Please no phone or email orders. These items will also be available at the Symposium and the Convention.

BOOK DONATIONS NEEDED - Members who are looking to donate intelligence, counterintelligence or related books to a worthy cause, consider helping with the building of a professional intelligence/counterintelligence etc. - related library at Mercyhurst College.

Professor Robert Heibel, FBI (ret), a member of theAFIO Board of Directors, has built an impressive undergraduate intelligence studies program at Mercyhurst - - from the ground up - - and is planning to expand it to include a graduate program. This requires building a professional intelligence library with some depth. He can be reached at .

USEFUL WEB SITES - TIMOR -- For information on Timor - history and current situation, AFIO member Tony Newcomb recommends KOSOVO -

CI COLD WAR HISTORY - AFIO member James Algrant's site at features a new column by Richard Cummings on the history of the US-financed Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty in Germany, examining the pattern of hostile activities of Soviet and East European intelligence services against RFE and RL over a forty year period

John Le Carre gave us the fictional side of Munich's " invisible community." The author of the column, AFIO member Richard Cummings, who was the director of security for RFE/RL from 1980 - 1995, presents the real-life details of the dangerous Cold War world in Munich, replete with terrorists, espionage, threats, intimidation and murder of emigrees. Cumming's first article deals with "Codeword Piccadilly" - covering the murder of Georgi Markov in London. (RoyJ)

MEMBER ASSISTANCE NEEDED - Can anyone assist a colleague by providing a lead to the latest medical research program in GENE THERAPY for BUERGER's disease? Please contact


CIA SUPPORT PROGRAM - Major firm in Washington DC area has part-time openings for (1) INSTRUCTORS to work on CIA Advanced Assessments Concept training program and (2) REPORTS Officers, to work the same system. The positions require the candidates to be retired CIA officers, with, respectively, strong teaching, or strong writing skills. Interested individuals contact and ref. File E-17.

FORMER SPECIAL OPERATIONS OFFICER, BSE, MS Systems Management, with twelve years experience as an industry systems analyst, current TS/SCI clearances, member of the Advanced Research Programs Agency (ARPA) senior working group addressing technology requirements for Operations Other Than War. Recent involvement with USSOCOM SOF baseline master plan, counternarcotics strategy, and low intensity conflict logistics. Available as consultant, or for part-time or full-time employment. Contact and ref. File J-122.

FORMER INTELLIGENCE OFFICER - MA International Relations, internet search skills, experience with encryption software (Secret Agent), completed Data Management Systems and Information Warfare applications courses, served as the lead in the Technology Assessment Working Group for the program protection plan of the Joint Strike Fighter Program, peformed a variety of technology treat assessments, and involved in the development of a USAF planning and modeling tool - - looking for challenging employment. Contact and refer to File J-124.

FOOTBALL TICKET ANNOUNCEMENT - AFIO member informs us that all interested in attending the WVA vs NAVY game on 2 Oictober be advised that the WVU Athletic Department will give a geat price reduction to Veterans wishing to atttend. Contact Mitch Fink, 304 293 3086 or .


1. The AFIO NATIONAL SYMPOSIUM " INTELLIGENCE 2000," will be held on Thursday 21 October 12:30 until 4 pm at the Marriott Hotel at Tysons Corner, Virginia, and continue on Friday 22 October, hosted by the Honorable Keith Hall, Director national Reconnaissance Office, at the NRO facility in Chantilly, Virginia from 0800 until 1700 hrs, followed by a " rush hour traffic abatement" Social Hour until 1800. The sessions will be conducted at the "UNCLASSIFIED, Background Use Only, Not For Attribution" level. As we all know and have experienced - MUCH of great interest can be said at this level.

A STELLAR CAST OF SPEAKERS has been invited to participate in the "Intelligence 2000" symposium, including, (in alphabetic order):

The Honorable Keith Hall, Director NRO, the Host of "Intelligence 2000."

Mr Jeffrey Harris, former Director NRO and currently President, Space Imaging, Inc.;

Lieutenant General Patrick Hughes, USA, former Director DIA;

Mr. Richard Kerr, former Deputy Director of Central Intelligence Mr. John Lauder, Director of the DCI Nonproliferation Center;

General Barry Macaffrey, Director of National Drug Control Policy, Executive Office of the President;

The Hon. Ted Stevens, US Senator and Chairman of the Senate Appropriations Committee;

Colonel Richard Stotts, Commander of the USAF Information Warfare Center;

The Honorable George Tenet, Director of Central Intelligence

Mr. Michael A. Vates, Depy Asst Dir. FBI, National Infrastructure Protection Center

2. The AFIO NATIONAL CONVENTION will be held in conjunction with the AFIO National Symposium, at the Tysons Marriott Hotel on Thursday 21 October at

4 pm. It will include a GENERAL MEMBERSHIP MEETING, a RECEPTION and cocktail hour, and an AWARDS BANQUET (three course dinner, music, awards to an media representative and a book author, and to exceptional AFIO members, and with a distinguished keynote speaker).

On Saturday morning follow-on meetings will be held, primarily with chapters members and the AFIO Board of Directors. Special tours may be arranged on Friday.

NOTE: The AFIO Honorary Board and a number of notables will be invited to attend the Reception and Banquet as guests of AFIO.

Programs and full information for the "Intelligence 2000" Symposium, and for the National Convention, have been mailed out. Help spread the word! Guests are welcome! Sponsor a new members and qualify them for the AFIO rate.


AFIO NATIONAL SYMPOSIUM only - 21 Oct Marriott & 22 Oct at NRO - $165 (for members and their guests, and for selected other categories of individuals (see note below*)

AFIO NATIONAL SYMPOSIUM - non-members (see note below*) - $215

AFIO NATIONAL CONVENTION only - 21 /23 October / Mariott Hotel - $105 (for AFIO members and their guests)

Package price for BOTH Convention and Symposium, for members and their guests = $239.

NOTE* - US /State/local Government personnel, and members of NMIA, DOCA, SASA, NIP, CIN, PCIC, SCIP and Natl Security Com of ABA, are invited to attend at AFIO member rates.

The total number of attendees is limited to 250. Early sign-up is recommended. For AGENDA information, contact: Symposium Chairman RADM (ret) Don McDowell,> or the AFIO Executive Director, Roy Jonkers

For REGISTRATION information, contact Mrs Gretchen Campbell, AFIO Dir. of Administration, tel (703) 790-0320, or email .

REGISTRATION: Provide Name, Social security number (for Government security check for Symposium), Title, Organization, Mailing & email and tel address, plus a check made out to "AFIO" and mail to: AFIO, 6723 Whittier Ave, Ste 303A, McLean, VA 22101-4533.

LODGING - - For out-of-towners, suggest you register to get a hotel room soonest. Arrangements for lodging may be made with the Tysons Corner Marriott hotel. To qualify for the SPECIAL RATE of $84 per night (good ONLY for Thursday, Friday and Saturday nights ) you MUST mention ASSOCIATION OF FORMER INTELLIGENCE OFFICERS.

If you include Wednesday night, they may not extend the special rate (although we have now been promised a few rooms at the discounted rate for Wednesday also).

Early hotel reservations are recommended (soonest), as the Marriott is expected to fill rapidly and early due to other events in the area.

AFIO CO-SPONSORED NIMITZ SYMPOSIUM - AFIO member Mike Absher has been involved with co-sponsoring and arranging the agenda for an upcoming Symposium conducted by the Admiral Nimitz Foundation at Trinity University, San Antonio Texas, on Friday and Saturday 8 and 9 October, entitled: " Double Edged Secrets: Six Decades of Intelligence in the Pacific." The agenda will include a number of panels chaired by Admiral (ret) Bill Studeman and LGeN (ret) Sam wilson, and presentations by Mike Absher, Paul Redmond, Ward Warren, John Prados and RADM (ret) Grojean. AFIO members can register at the same rate as Nimitz Foundation members. Call (830) 997 4379, ext 228, or (830) 997 9600 for registration information.

TIGHE SCHOLARSHIP AWARD (San Diego, California). The San Diego Chapter of the Association of Former Intelligence Officers (AFIO/SDC1) has announced the topic for the year 2000 Tighe Scholarship essay contest. This will be the sixth, and last, year for this contest which is funded by the chapter and by Bally Manufacturing and the Brunswick Corporation, in memory of Lieutenant General Eugene F. Tighe, Jr., who passed away on January 29, 1994.

General Tighe served the U.S. Air Force and the U.S. Intelligence Community for over 50 years, including as the Director of the Defense Intelligence Agency from 1978 to 1981. To help foster intellectual excellence, encourage college students to think about issues facing the Intelligence Community, and to make post-secondary students aware of Intelligence as a profession, the San Diego Chapter is offering a $1,000 scholarship to the student who submits the best 1,000-1,500 word essay on the specific topic: "Identify and discuss the top national security threat(s) you think the U.S. Intelligence Community should be focused on today." Complete details, including required essay format and a mandatory application that must accompany the essay, are available from AFIO/SDC1 by sending a stamped Self-Addressed Stamped Envelope (SASE -- size #10 business) to:

Tighe Scholarship Administrator; 1142 Miramonte Glen; Escondido, CA 92026-1724.

AFIO/SDC1 will send Tighe Packages back to students in their SASE's if they are received by the Administrator prior t o December 1, 1999. Postmark deadline for submitting essays and applications is January 10, 2000. Questions can be addressed to the Administrator via e-mail to

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