AFIO Weekly Intelligence Notes #27-18 dated 17 July 2018

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CONTENTS

Section I - INTELLIGENCE HIGHLIGHTS

Section II - CONTEXT & PRECEDENCE

Section III - COMMENTARY

Section IV - Research Request and Obituaries

Research Request

Obituaries

Section V - Events

Upcoming AFIO Events

Other Upcoming Events from Advertisers, Corporate Sponsors, and Others

For Additional AFIO and other Events two+ months or more... Calendar of Events 

WIN CREDITS FOR THIS ISSUE: The WIN editors thank the following special contributors: ec, mh, km, gh, mk, rd, fm, kc, jm, mr, jg, th, ed, and fwr. They have contributed one or more stories used in this issue.

The WIN editors attempt to include a wide range of articles and commentary in the Weekly Notes to inform and educate our readers. However, the views expressed in the articles are purely those of the authors, and in no way reflect support or endorsement from the WIN editors or the AFIO officers and staff. We welcome comments from the WIN readers on any and all articles and commentary.
CAVEATS: IMPORTANT: AFIO does not "vet" or endorse research inquiries, career announcements, or job offers. Reasonable-sounding inquiries and career offerings are published as a service to our members, and for researchers, educators, and subscribers. You are urged to exercise your usual caution and good judgment when responding, and should verify the source independently before supplying any resume, career data, or personal information.]
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NOTICES

Early Notice
AFIO's Fall Luncheon

Friday, 2 November 2018

  Dangers, Challenges, and Joys of the Diplomatic and Intelligence Field of Operations
 

Amb. Prudence Bushnell

Terrorism Betrayal & Resilience

Ambassador Prudence Bushnell
Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs,
U.S. Ambassador to Kenya and Guatemala
Dean of the Leadership and Management School at the Foreign Service Institute

on

― Terrorism, Betrayal, and Resilience ―
My Story of the 1998 U.S. Embassy Bombings

"A gripping harrowing saga of the 1998 bombing of Embassy Nairobi. Ambassador Bushnell provides lessons of leadership, crisis management, and policy acumen. Dramatically illustrates the terrorism danger diplomats [and intelligence officers] confront daily." —Ambassador Robert E. Gribbin III (Ret.)

"Bushnell is a true professional with the toughness, grit, courage, and compassion that marks the kind of superb leader you want in charge during a crisis. I witnessed her remarkable composure, even when personally injured, and her take-command leadership. This book is important for many reasons. It vividly presents a profile in courage; an understanding rarely appreciated for our foreign service men and women working in difficult assignments; a set of valuable lessons learned; and a case study in leadership during crisis. Every American should read this book."—Gen. Anthony C. Zinni, U.S. Marine Corps (Ret.)

 
  and  

Best of Enemies

Gus Russo

Eric Dezenhall

Gus Russo and Eric Dezenhall
on Best of Enemies: The Last Great Spy Story of the Cold War

"... crucial for anyone who wants to understand espionage or the Cold War."― James Grady, author of Six Days of the Condor

"If John le Carré wrote nonfiction and was a great reporter, BEST OF ENEMIES would be the result."―Laurence Leamer, author

"... how an American CIA agent and a Russian KGB agent wound up on the same side. You have to read it to believe it."―Tom Brokaw


Former KGB Officer Gennady Vasilenko, and Michelle "Mox" Platt, daughter of the late CIA Operations Officer Jack Platt, will be in attendance.

 
  Badge pick-up starts at 10 a.m.
First speaker, Ambassador Bushnell, at 11 a.m.
and Gus Russo and Eric Dezenhall at 1 p.m.
     
Register here to ensure a seat.
     
Location: DoubleTree-Hilton, Tysons Corner, VA [formerly the Crowne Plaza], at 1960 Chain Bridge Rd, McLean, VA 22102.

Books of the Week

House of Trump House of PutinHouse of Trump, House of Putin: The Untold Story of Donald Trump and the Russian Mafia
by Craig Unger
(Dutton, Sep 2018)

Looks at the decades-long relationship among Donald Trump, Vladimir Putin, and the Russian Mafia that, says Unger (author of the 2004 House of Bush, House of Saud) ultimately helped win Trump the White House. Unger suggests it all began in the 1970s when Trump made his first splash in the booming world of highend New York real estate, and ends with Trump's inauguration as president of the US. That moment was the culmination of Putin's long mission to undermine Western democracy, a mission that he and his hand-selected group of oligarchs and Mafia kingpins had ensnared Trump in, starting twenty years earlier with massive bailouts of a string of sensational Trump hotel and casino failures in Atlantic City. For many, Unger's analysis will confirm their suspicions about Russian malevolence and use of the current president as their unwitting puppet.

If true, it suggests that the Cold War did not end in 1991—but merely evolved, with Trump's overpriced buildings and condos offering the perfect vehicle for billions of looted dollars to leave the collapsing Soviet Union. Unger traces the deep-rooted alliance between the highest echelons of American political operatives and the biggest players in the underworld of the Russian Mafia. He traces Trump's ascent from foundering real estate tycoon to leader of the free world. He traces Russia's phoenixlike rise from the ashes of the post–Cold War Soviet Union as well as its ceaseless covert efforts to retaliate against the West and reclaim its status as a global superpower.

Without Trump, Russia would have lacked a key component in its attempts to return to imperial greatness. Without Russia, Trump would have lacked his real estate empire and would today not be president. Their covert synergism is crucial to understanding the powers at play in the shadows of today's global world where following the money is everything.

Book may be preordered here.


UnriveledUnrivaled: Why America Will Remain the World's Sole Superpower
by Michael Beckley
(Cornell University Press, Sep 2018)

The US has been the world's dominant power for more than a century. Now many analysts believe that other countries are rising and the US is in decline. Is the unipolar moment over? Is America finished as a superpower?

Beckley argues the US has unique advantages over other nations that, if used wisely, will allow it to remain the world's sole superpower throughout this century. We are not living in a transitional, post-Cold War era. Instead, we are in the midst of what he calls the unipolar era—a period as singular and important as any epoch in modern history. This era, Beckley contends, will endure because the US has a much larger economic and military lead over its closest rival, China, than most people think and the best prospects of any nation to amass wealth and power in the decades ahead.

The book documents long-term trends in the global balance of power and explains their implications for world politics.

"...conceptually clear, empirically unassailable, and analytically fair and objective. It will quickly become a classic in International Security studies." —Keir Lieber, Associate Professor and Director, Center for Security Studies, Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University

"Beckley's research demolishes the current China hype, which fills a small library by now. 'America's edge will endure' is the message of this piece, and it is argued with academic rigor, felicity of style, and compelling numbers. This piece will overturn many clichés about America's 'decline' while greatly improving the intelligence of the debate." —Josef Joffe, Stanford University

"For those who think China is going to overtake the U.S., Michael Beckley says think again. Unrivaled shows that China can't match America's ability to generate wealth and military power. This masterful book backs up Bismarck's quip that "God has a special providence for…the United States." —John Mearsheimer, Professor of Political Science, University of Chicago

Book may be ordered here.



Section I - INTELLIGENCE HIGHLIGHTS

House Passes Intelligence Bill. A bill to authorize funding for intelligence agencies and support critical national security programs especially targeting Russia, China and North Korea, passed the House on Thursday.

The bill, which passed 363-54, would increase the pay for intelligence employees with cyber skills and defend against foreign threats to federal U.S. elections. It would require intelligence agencies to brief key congressional leaders if the U.S. faces meddling or a cyber intrusion targeting a federal election.

"The bill takes steps to prevent a repeat of the Russian active measures campaign that targeted our 2016 election," said Rep. Adam Schiff of California, the ranking Democrat on the House intelligence committee.

The 100-page bill calls for setting up a center within the Energy Department to coordinate intelligence on threats to U.S. infrastructure. [Read More: Reichmann/mychamplainvalley/12Jul2018]

Brig. Sabitti Roots For Intelligence Sharing Amongst African Police Agencies. Deputy Inspector General of Police Brig. Sabitti Muzeeyi on Friday urged African police intelligence chiefs to always share intelligence information to ensure fight against transnational crimes across the continent.

The police boss was speaking at the closure of a two day intelligence meeting in Entebbe where spy chiefs from 26 African countries gathered to strategize on raising organized crimes.

In the meet, spy chiefs discussed ways of fighting drug and human trafficking, illegal weapon dealings, car thefts and terrorism among others.

Top on the resolutions, spy chiefs that included Directors of Interpol from East Africa Police Chiefs Cooperation (EAPCCO) and South African Region Police Chiefs Corporation (SARPCO) agreed to always share intelligence information regarding organized crimes. [Read More: Nzito/chimreports/16Jul2018]

Pakistan Hosts Spy Chiefs from Russia, China, Iran. Pakistan hosted on Wednesday an unprecedented meeting of heads of intelligence agencies from Russia, China and Iran to discuss counter terrorism cooperation, with particular focus on the buildup of Islamic State in turmoil-hit Afghanistan.

Official sources in Islamabad confirmed that the participants held detailed discussions on joint measures to stop Afghan-based loyalists of the Middle Eastern terrorist group from threatening the territorial boundaries of the four nations.

The unusual huddle brought together spymasters from the countries which are "directly affected" by IS-led terrorism. However, it was "not targeted against any other country as it may be viewed," the sources asserted in a bid to allay suggestions that cooperation involving Russia, China and Iran could undermine US-led efforts to stabilise Afghanistan.

A spokesperson for Moscow's Foreign Intelligence Service also confirmed that the emergence of IS in Afghanistan prompted the deliberations in Islamabad. [Read More: tribune/13Jul2018]

Feds Charge Russian Student, Linked To NRA, With Conspiracy. Just hours after President Trump met with Russian President Vladimir Putin and held a joint news conference with his Russian counterpart that stunned many political observers in the U.S., federal prosecutors on Monday unsealed a criminal complaint alleging that a Russian graduate student living in the D.C. area conspired to act as an agent of Russia without registering, as required, under U.S. law.

Maria Butina, 29, was ordered detained by a magistrate judge in Washington, D.C., pending a detention hearing Wednesday. Court papers said she entered the U.S. on a student visa in August 2016, ostensibly for graduate work in international relations at American University. Instead, the FBI says, she secretly worked on behalf of the Russian government.

Butina, through her lawyer, denied that she was acting as a Russian agent when she drafted articles for conservative publications, attended the National Prayer Breakfast and set up meals between Russians and Americans.

FBI Special Agent Kevin Helson wrote in a sworn statement that one goal of the alleged conspiracy was to "exploit personal connections with U.S. persons having influence in American politics in an effort to advance the interests of the Russian Federation." [Read More: Johnson/aspenpublicradio/16Jul2018]

Pentagon Says China Spying on Military Exercises. Chinese spy ship is currently spying on a major US-led military exercise off the coast of Hawaii, the same exercise it was disinvited from due to US opposition to Beijing's militarization of features in the South China Sea.

"The US Pacific Fleet has been monitoring a Chinese navy surveillance ship operating in the vicinity of Hawaii outside US territorial seas," US Navy Capt. Charles Brown, a spokesman for US Pacific Fleet, said in a statement. "We expect this ship will remain outside of US territorial seas and not operate in a manner that disrupts the ongoing Rim of the Pacific maritime exercise."

China was disinvited from the exercise, known as RIMPAC, in May over what the Pentagon called China's "continued militarization of disputed features in the South China Sea," including the deployment of anti-ship missiles, surface-to-air missile systems and electronic jammers.

The spy ship arrived in the waters off Hawaii on July 11, and it has not entered the territorial seas of the United States, a US military official told CNN. [Read More: Browne/cnn/13Jul2018]

Farnborough 2018: RAF Shakes Up Air and Space Intelligence. The RAF has announced that it is to establish a multi-domain air and space operations service - under the umbrella Group 11 - which will be integrated into the UK's existing national air and space operations centre at RAF High Wycombe.

Making the announcement at the Air Power Association's annual conference on 11 July, Air Chf Mshl Stephen Hillier, Chief of the Air Staff, said that the new service would enable new intelligence and information capabilities to be created, allowing 'faster and better operational decision-making' for the UK and its international allies - across air, space and cyber domains.

'The capabilities and units within this new group have not always been given 'numbered' status within the RAF. That will change too, to reinforce that they are now firmly at the core of RAF capability - as vital to our next generation capability as, say, a Voyager or a Puma squadron,' Hillier explained.

The move gives a firm indication of the changing direction of the RAF and its commitment to prioritising a joined up strategy - an approach that hasn't always been identifiable. [Read More: Martin/shephardmedia/12Jul2018]

NGA Offers $15,000 in Prizes for Imagery Technology. The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) has announced a $15,000 prize for an algorithm that can colorize panchromatic images in under 10 hours without human intervention.

The Rapid Image Colorization challenge seeks an algorithm that could colorize panchromatic grey scale images. The algorithm would help make a determination of the images and information collected by NGA more accurate, the challenge announcement explains.

The winning algorithm will be able to colorize images of up to 10 gigapixels within the 10-hour time frame.

"This goes well beyond simple colorization of an old black and white image in terms of the size of the image and the speed at which the colorization must be accomplished," the challenge announcement said. [Read More: Longwell/c4isrnet/13Jul2018]



Section II - CONTEXT & PRECEDENCE

G.R.U., Russian Spy Agency Cited by Mueller, Casts a Long Shadow. The Russian intelligence officers indicted on Friday by the United States special counsel, Robert S. Mueller III, served in a branch of the Russian military formerly known as the G.R.U., which has been linked in recent years to a number of increasingly bold, even reckless operations abroad.

The organization is Russia's largest military intelligence agency and is one of several groups authorized to spy for the Russian government, alongside successor agencies to the K.G.B.

Though the G.R.U. has been the target of sanctions by the United States government numerous times, including in connection with hacking in the 2016 presidential election, the indictments filed by Mr. Mueller's office are the first criminal charges leveled against Russian government officials for election meddling.

A previous indictment the financier and employees of a nominally private internet troll farm based in St. Petersburg. [Read More: Kramer/nytimes/13Jul2018]

Alexa, Are You A Spy? Israeli Startup Raises $12.5 Million So Governments Can Hack IoT. A group of ex-Israeli military experts have set up a one-stop hacking shop for governments that require extra capability to fight terrorists and other threats to national security in the digital domain. Coming out of stealth Monday, Tel Aviv-based Toka says it'll provide spy tools for whatever device its clients require. But while it'll try to hack devices like Apple iPhones, it has a special focus on the so-called Internet of Things (IoT), covering tech like Amazon Echo, Nest connected home products, as well as connected fridges, thermostats and alarms. The weaponization of IoT has privacy activists anxious, however.

With an impressive seed raise of $12.5 million and ex-Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak as cofounder, alongside an "all-star" leadership team, Toka is hoping to exploit the market opportunity IoT brings, even for intelligence agencies and military units. The number of IoT devices on the planet will number an estimated 35 billion by the end of this year.

Brigadier General Yaron Rosen, former chief of the Israel Defense Forces Cyber Staff, now president at Toka, gave Forbes an example of just how its IoT exploits could work in the real world. Imagine, Rosen regaled, a terrorist had taken hostages in a closed space. As the SWAT team approached, the agents, instead of bursting into the hostage space blind, could hack into connected devices beyond the walls to gain visual or audio in the room, he explained.

The company doesn't yet know whether it'll be specializing in specific devices like Amazon Echo, as it waits on what customers desire. Toka will also be offering "cyber designer services" for a "holistic" approach to digital security. "We believe it's a new category, a cyber-capacity-building company," added Rosen, who founded the company alongside Barak, former vice president at Israel's cybersecurity giant Check Point Alon Kantor, and Kfir Waldman, previously CEO of security and mobile companies Kayhut and Go Arc said. [Read More: Fox-Brewster/forbes/15Jul2018]

Signal Specialists, Systems Maintainers Keep Intelligence Flowing. Moving intelligence from the unit level down to Soldiers on the battlefield requires sophisticated systems. Those systems, usually, do not come as tough as the Soldiers operating them. Fortunately, the 373rd Expeditionary Military Intelligence Battalion brings expert technicians to the field, ready to maintain a steady flow of information.

The 373rd E-MI Battalion provides communication support during exercise Always Engaged 2018, an external proficiency assessment of Military Intelligence Readiness Command (MIRC) units - in this case, the 259th E-MI Brigade. Consistently engaged since its establishment in 2005, the MIRC has mobilized and deployed more than 6,000 Soldiers in support of the Total Army and the Joint Force during contingency operations.

"This is the first exercise where we've worked with the brigade," explains says 2nd Lt. Drew Taylor, officer in charge of the 373rd E-MI Battalion's S6 section. "This current organizational structure is kind of new so we're working out some wrinkles and getting used to communicating between units. They [the brigade] don't have any of their own equipment yet because they're so new. We've run into some issues, but we're working those out so in the future we'll be better at supporting them."

Helping to support the 259th E-MI Brigade is Sgt. Jeremiah Higgins, military intelligence systems maintainer and integrator with the 373rd E-MI Battalion. [Read More: Crawford/dvidshub/16Jul2018]

Book Review: Inside Intelligence, The Revelations of an MI6 Officer. News Analysis - Owing to the nature of the job, there is a wall of secrecy and intrigue surrounding the intelligence business. Consequently, whenever there is a book written by someone from an intelligence agency, there is a measure of hype and media attention surrounding it. One such book is Inside Intelligence: The Revelations of an MI6 Officer by Anthony Cavendish.

Cavendish is a former officer in the MI6. He served during the second world war and several years in the ensuing decade at the beginning of the Cold War. In the prologue, the author mentions that he wrote the book for two purposes; one, to record an account his earlier life that his children didn't know about and, two, to defend his friend Sir Maurice Oldfield's reputation. Oldfield was a former Chief of the MI6 and had recruited Anthony Cavendish into the service. The two had formed a lifelong friendship spanning multiple decades. There had been rumors that Oldfield was a homosexual and had lied about his sexuality when he was being recruited into the Military Intelligence Section 6. These rumors destroyed his name. Anthony Cavendish hopes to clarify these misconceptions in addition to narrating his own adventures as an undercover officer serving for the UK carrying out clandestine operations against the Soviet Union.

The first half of the book deals with the writer's career in intelligence. He talks about how he recruited agents, how some of his agents were caught and executed, how important it is for an intelligence officer to maintain cover and not reveal his or her true identity. He also talks about the fact that several former members of the Communist party had infiltrated the MI6 and when caught, had been forced to leave the service. Some were imprisoned for lying about their past.

The book is divided into 21 chapters. The first few chapters discuss how he handled and trained agents against the Soviet Union and the fate of those agents when they were caught. In what may appear to be a scene out of Hollywood, the author also discusses his romantic attachments with one of his sources that did not end well. Cavendish also served briefly in Europe before being forced to leave the service under a dubious recommendation by one of his seniors. [Read More: globalvillagespace/14Jul2018]



Section III - COMMENTARY

Ethics in the Intelligence Community - Is There Room for Improvement? Last month the Congressional Research Service published a report, CIA Ethics Education: Background and Perspectives. The report notes how critics have called into question the CIA ethics program, and if that program is more focused on legal compliance than comprehensive ethics education.

Some former employees of the agency have advocated for ethical reform, along with an established set of ethical norms or code of conduct. Others in the intelligence community have argued that it is impossible to introduce training on morality into what is so often viewed as an inherently duplicitous environment of covert action or clandestine foreign intelligence.

The report cited former Director of Central Intelligence William Webster who said, "In the United States, we obey the laws of the United States. Abroad we uphold the national security of the United States."

That view has largely been seen as a "realist" perspective of ensuring national security in the context of international relations, where the state's best interests are the preeminent driver of foreign policy. This in turn is where individual conduct comes into play. Subscribers to the realist perspective don't exactly ignore personal morality, but must see it as secondary to the larger context of relations between states. [Read More: Suciu/clearancejobs/16Jul2018]

Using Data Analytics to Target Human Smugglers. Human smuggling is big business.

The financial cost can be as high as a few thousand dollars to cross the border from Mexico to the United States, while immigrants from China might pay tens of thousands for their cross-Pacific journey. However, no amount of money guarantees successful entry into the United States, or even survival. According to U.S. Customs and Border Protection's statistics, hundreds die attempting to get into the United States every year.

Due to the secretive nature of the lucrative, yet illegal underground market of human smuggling, accurately gaging the number of people who are smuggled into the United States is extremely difficult. Some estimates put illegal crossings at 350,000 per year―and that's just coming over the U.S.-Mexican border. [Read More: ice/16Jul2018]

Russia's Foreign-Software Approval Service Helps Military Hackers. The agency that ostensibly reviews foreign-made wares for vulnerabilities sends the lion's share straight to its hacker squads.

When international hardware and software vendors come to Russia seeking sales, they must open up their wares for inspection by the Federal Service for Technical and Export Control, or FSTEC, a Russian agency ostensibly set up to warn government and private-sector users about bugs and other vulnerabilities. But a new paper by Western cybersecurity researchers shows that most of these bugs are never revealed to the public. That means that they could be used by Russian military and intelligence services without anyone knowing. The FSTEC is, itself, a military organization that supports counterintelligence and counterespionage operations.

The researchers from Recorded Future, a privately held company based in Massachusetts and Sweden, concluded that just 10 percent of the bugs discovered by FSTEC are eventually released to Russia's national vulnerabilities database. (Compare that to the United States' NSA, which ultimately posts some 80 to 90 percent of the bugs it finds to the National Vulnerabilities Database.)

Their report says FSTEC is basically a cover to get foreign companies looking to sell information technology inside Russia to allow the government to poke through those wares for vulnerabilities. The agency releases a fraction of what they find, just enough to be "credible" as a software reviewer. [Read More: Tucker/nextgov/16Jul2018]

Feds Finally Tackle Security Clearance Backlog. In April, at a meeting with local defense contractors, business leaders, government officials and academics from the University of Mary Washington, Sen. Mark Warner called for reform of the nation's security clearance system. A huge backlog of 740,000 people were waiting for security clearances, the senator said, with an average wait time of 540 days - nearly a year and a half.

More than just a bureaucratic nightmare, the backlog had become a national security issue, the vice chairman of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence told attendees at the roundtable discussion, hosted in Stafford County by the Fredericksburg Regional Alliance.

"This is a system that is completely, completely broken in terms of access and in terms of agencies' willingness to fund," Warner said. He pointed out at the time that of 150 elections officials whose voting systems were infiltrated by Russian hackers in November 2016, only 20 had received clearances to review the evidence. [Read More: fredericksburg/11Jul2018]

Why American Spies Worry When Trump Meets Putin. Just as the Russian leader has unleashed his intelligence and security services, the American president has kneecapped and undermined his own.

It was going to be Donald Trump's "easiest" meeting, at least according to Trump himself. After a week of tense exchanges with allies in Brussels and then the U.K., the U.S president would head to Helsinki for his first formal summit with Russian President Vladimir Putin. Then on Friday, right as the president was settling down to tea with the Queen, the indictments came; the Justice Department accused 12 officers of Russian intelligence with specific crimes related to meddling in the 2016 election - the one U.S. intelligence says the Russians wanted to throw to Trump.

If Trump is worried this will cast a pall over the summit, American intelligence officials have plenty of other reasons to worry about the meeting. Notwithstanding any indictment-related awkwardness, the summit will still be a gift to Putin - an unearned opportunity for him to break out of his immediate struggles and achieve a variety of otherwise impossible goals. Indeed, through a number of aggressive and provocative actions that appeared to provide short-term wins, Putin has nonetheless gotten himself trapped. His country is heavily sanctioned, economically weak, overextended, and lacking in allies. His unprovoked land grab in Crimea, attack on neighboring Ukraine, electoral interference in the U.S. and Europe, assassination of opponents, support to Syria's bloody dictator Bashar al-Assad and constant lies have left him ostracized in much of the developed world. He can no longer offer his people wealth or the vision of a better future. He instead relies on the tools of oppression and scapegoats to blame for his failures. The dynamic is unlikely to change anytime soon. [Read More: Sipher/theatlantic/14Jul2018]



Section IV - Research Request and Obituaries

Research Request

Intelligence Officers Running for Congress - Do you know of any? Are you one? I'm a journalist with Newsmax and am researching how many former intelligence officers are running for Congress this election cycle, and whether there has been an uptick in the number participating in elections. Please let me know if you have any data on that -- it would be very helpful. Thank you, Barbara Boland Reply to Ms. Boland here.

Obituaries

Charles Thomas Kennedy Jr, 92, Senior NSA Operations Directorate Official, died 11 July 2018 in Severna Park, MD. After graduating from Academy High School, Chuck served in the Army during WWII. He used the GI Bill to attend Gannon College and later pursued his Master's in Government Affairs at Catholic University. He went on to forge a long and distinguished career at the National Security Agency including tours in Germany and England. He was head of the largest NSA office covering a major target of the Operations Directorate. He had a passion for the mission of NSA spending a combined 45 years of government and private service dedicated to countering Russia's challenge to the free world. Chuck loved his co-workers which he often referred to as his "NSA Family" and was extremely proud of a particular initiative that resulted in one of the most successful collection operations of its time. His organization received a handwritten congratulatory note from President Reagan for their special work. He was a member of the Senior Cryptologic Executive Service, and was also, in retirement, a proud member of the Phoenix Society.
A voracious reader of fact and fiction, Chuck enjoyed board games, pinochle and contract bridge, and was a fan of soccer after a stay in England. For over thirty years, until the age of 80, he proudly served on the Tower Federal Credit Union Board serving the financial interests of the NSA Family. His later years were spent tracking federal legislation related to credit unions and met with congressional leaders to offset the special interests of the commercial banking industry. Chuck was liberal-minded and supported many social justice causes.
Chuck's wife of 67 years, Betty Michaels, died in June 2017. He is survived by two sons and two daughters, a sister and a brother, and other family.

George Donald Kessler, 86, NSA Arabic Linguist and Intelligence Analyst, died 9 July 2018 in Troy, PA. George attended Shickshinny High School, and, upon graduation in 1949, enlisted in the US Marines. During his three-year career in the military he developed the deep-rooted patriotism, honor, and commitment that would shape his life and, ultimately, his career path. George was introduced to and excelled at Arabic. He also excelled on the Marine Corps football team, where he was affectionately known as "the brains of the football team." George went on to attend Bucknell University in Lewisburg, PA and graduated with a pre-law degree in 1957. He then began his 36-year career at the National Security Agency in Ft. Meade, MD as an intelligence analyst and Arabic linguist. George was proud to have served his country.
His past-times included golf, working in his yard, reading, coaching youth football, and lecturing on college campuses.
George is survived by his wife of 62 years, Janet Andrews Kessler, two sons, two daughters, and other family.

Charles Robert Langalis, 88, a career CIA Latin America Reports and Operations Officer, died 4 July 2018 in McLean, VA of cardiac arrest. He attended public schools in New Canaan, CT and Fairfield Preparatory School in Fairfield, CT, and graduated from the Latin American Institute in New York City in 1952 with an A.A. in Commercial Public Relations. He continued undergraduate studies at American and George Washington Universities while in Washington, DC. Medically diagnosed since childhood as legally blind due to congenital low vision, Mr. Langalis's professional life began in 1950 at NBC in New York City. During that time, the post-war Office of Strategic Services (OSS) in Washington, DC was expanding and in 1952 he answered the call of the then CIA for candidates with foreign language skills. A year later, a lingering hankering for the advertising world of Madison Avenue drew him back to New York, but it proved unsatisfying and he returned to CIA for good in 1954, though his vision limited him to positions at Agency headquarters.
In 1958, Langalis obtained a medical waiver opening the way to serving 10 years in covert operations in the capitals of Panama, Bolivia, and Venezuela, numerous temporary assignments elsewhere in Central and South America, the Caribbean, Western Europe, and Sub-Sahara Africa. During the Cold War, Langalis's fluency and precision in Spanish gave him expertise on Cuban intelligence operations in Latin America and Africa. In positions of increasing responsibility at home and overseas, his work in the Directorate of Clandestine Services centered on influencing and advancing pro-Western interests in these regions, as well as devising and executing effective strategies for thwarting efforts by Cuban and Soviet Bloc elements to undermine democratic institutions. Because of his schooling as a specialist on Latin America, he became part of the team "that helped the Bolivians bag Che Guevara." His specialty was propaganda and political stuff to help with US policy interests. In 1958, became a reports officer in Panama, and later in Bolivia, and then in Venezuela. He occasionally covered the duties of case officers. In 1988 he received the agency's Career Intelligence Medal for his service. In an interview published a few years ago he was quoted: "It was a great career," he reflects. "There was lots of problem-solving, a need for interpersonal skills, language learning, and we learned a lot from the agents also. It was work that gives you a good psychic payback and you were rewarded for it, even though there were times when you put in 70-75 hours a week." In retirement. Upon his formal retirement from the Agency in 1988, Langalis received the Career Intelligence Medal for Exceptional Achievements over his 35 years of service. His work with the CIA as a US-based independent contractor would continue for another five years.
In retirement, he remained active in Falls Church political, civic, and community affairs including the city's Democratic Party Committee, the Architectural Advisory Board, the Citizens Advisory Committee on Transportation, and was a Spanish-language interpreter for the Housing & Human Services Division and Legal Services of Northern Virginia. He also he enjoyed the outdoors, gardening and landscaping.
Langalis was pre-deceased by his wife of 57 years, Mary-Paget S. Langalis, who died in 2011. Survivors include a son, a daughter, and other family.

Jack Morris, 94, Deputy, Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelligence, DOD, died 11 July 2018 in Fredericksburg, VA. He attended West High School was active in the Scouts. He earned a BS in accounting from Ohio State University after serving in the US Army, 749th Tank Battalion, during WWII. His service included an assault landing at Utah beach in France, the first US unit to cross the Seine River, capture of the Buchenwald Concentration Camp and managing a Chemical Depot Company in Southern France after the fighting ended.
Following graduation from OSU in 1948 he worked as an accountant for the Bonney Floyd Steel Company and then changed jobs and became Secretary for the Hilltop Business Association in Columbus where he managed the widely known annual Hilltop Bean Dinner. After graduation he also joined the Ohio Air National Guard as an Intelligence officer. Later his unit was recalled to active duty in September 1951 due to the increasing threatening posture of the USSR in Europe. A few months later his unit, the 155th Aircraft-Control and Warning Group, was shipped to West Germany to strengthen the US position in Western Europe. He joined the US Air Force where he served for 35 years active duty. Included in this time were two more wars (Korea and Vietnam); two worldwide trips with the Air Force Chief of Staff, 20 years in the Pentagon, and finally becoming the most senior Colonel in the US Air Force plus serving as Deputy, Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelligence. During this long period of service Jack was awarded 21 medals including the National Intelligence Distinguished Service Medal, Legion of Merit (twice), Bronze Star (twice), Purple Heart and The French Legion of Honor.
He was also an active participant in his church serving in several leadership posts. He enjoyed teaching high school and college age students and did so for 25 years. He was also an active Mason and Shriner for 72 years.
Jack is survived by his wife of 70 years, Harriett Louise Edwards Morris, three sons, a daughter, and other family.



Section V - Events

AFIO EDUCATIONAL EVENTS IN COMING TWO MONTHS....

Thursday, 19 July 2018, 11:30 AM - Colorado Springs - The AFIO Rocky Mountain Chapter hosts Robert Fricke, discussing "East Germany and the Stasi Separating myth from reality"

A review of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR's) national security police [Staatssicherheitsdienst (Stasi)] will focus on a brief history and description of the notorious organization headed by Erich Mielke as gleaned by speaker's research and experience as an Assistant Legal Attaché in Frankfurt, Germany from 1999-2004. Fricke will review the lasting legacy of the Stasi and discuss controversial deaths of East German dissidents Juergen Fuchs and Lutz Eigendorf, blamed on Stasi assassins. Fricke's research and experience will be bolstered by his unique status as the grandson of a German immigrant who has re-established strong ties with his former East German family from the town of Calbe an der Saale in the German province of Saxony-Anhalt. Two of his second cousins served in the GDR Nationale Volksarmee (Army). Robert Fricke is retired Special Agent of the FBI. He is currently an educator and instructor with background in Federal law enforcement, government intelligence, and compliance in high-risk, complex environments. During his career, Fricke also served as project manager for the Department of Homeland Security, supervising a team tasked with vetting domestic intelligence information with the terrorist watch list. He also served as an intelligence analyst for the Department of Justice and Department of Defense, providing daily support to the US Northern Command Counter Intelligence Office. Fricke is originally from Cleveland, Ohio and is a 1978 graduate of the Virginia Military Institute.

Contact Tom VanWormer at robsmom@pcisys.net to attend or for more information.

2 August 2018, 6:30 to 8:30 p.m. - Wilsonville, OR - The AFIO Columbia River Chapter features Derrick Olsen on "Staying Engaged on International Issues in the Age of Disruption."

Derrick Olsen, former State Department official, and current President of World Oregon, will discuss "From the State Department to WorldOregon: Staying Engaged on International Issues in the Age of Disruption."
Olsen is a former Foreign Service Officer and currently the President of WorldOregon. Previously, he had over 13 years managing political and economic issues as a Foreign Service Officer for the US Department of State in Latin America, Asia, and Washington, DC, with four overseas tours including as Chief of the US Embassy's Political Section in Tegucigalpa, Honduras. Fluent in Spanish, Derrick grew up in Oregon. He holds a BA in Government and History from Dartmouth College and a MS in Foreign Service from Georgetown University.
Event location: McMenamins Wilsonville Old Church & Pub, 30340 SW Boones Ferry Rd, Wilsonville, OR 97070 (503) 427-2500. Note: Attendees are responsible to pay for their own food and beverages. McMenamins will provide individual checks for everyone's convenience. The views expressed are those of the speaker and do not represent the views or opinions of the US Government or any component of AFIO.
TO ATTEND: Contact Carl Wege twege@ccga.edu or 912-222-8640 or for more information.

Saturday, 11 August 2018, 11 a.m. - 3 p.m. - Orange Park, FL - AFIO North Florida Chapter hosts Col John Frketic on "The President's Daily Brief."

Our guest speaker is Colonel John D. Frketic, US Army(Ret), talking about "the President's Daily Brief" aka "the PDB." He has recently given a similar speech to the University of North Florida. Frketic spent 34 years on active duty with multiple combat tours including Vietnam, Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm and Operation Iraqi Freedom and was an intelligence operator, analyst, and unit commander with years working intelligence, order-of-battle, and counterterrorism issues throughout the Balkans and the Middle East. The PDB, sometimes referred to as the President's Daily Briefing or the President's Daily Bulletin, is a top-secret document provided each morning to the US President and also distributed to a small number of top-level US officials approved by the President. It includes highly-classified intelligence analysis, information about CIA covert operations, and reports from the most sensitive US sources or those shared by allied intelligence agencies. The PDB is produced by the Director of National Intelligence, and involves fusing intelligence from CIA, DIA, NSA, the FBI and other members of the US Intelligence Community.
Location: Country Club of Orange Park, 2525 Country Club Blvd, Orange Park, FL 32073.
RSVP: Ken Meyer at kemeyer123@att.net or for further information call 904-777-2050. Cost will be $24 per person, pay the Club at the luncheon. Remember that family and guests, especially potential members, are all cordially invited.

Saturday 15 September 2018, Noon - Melbourne, FL - The AFIO Florida Space Coast Chapter hosts Greg Donovan and Renee Purden on "TSA, FAA, Intelligence and Other Security and Preparedness Matters."

The AFIO Florida Space Coast Chapter hosts Greg Donovan, AAE, Executive Director of Orlando/Melbourne International Airport, and Renee Purden, Director of Public Safety and Chief of Orlando/Melbourne International Airport Police Force.
Director Donovan and Chief Purden will address such topics as: the local management and police/security relationships and coordination with the federal Transportation Security Administration and the Federal Aviation Administration; the usefulness on our local scene of national and international intelligence reports and the Domestic Outreach Plan for the federal information sharing program; security in the General Aviation sector, and the airport's emergency preparedness plans for catastrophic events.
Event location: Suntree Country Club, One Country Club Drive, Melbourne, FL 32940
To register, or for more information, please contact FSC Chapter President at afiofsc@afio.com.

Monday, 24 September 2018, 5:30 - 8 pm - New York, NY - AFIO NY Metro Chapter hosts Elizabeth Peek on "The Inextricable Links between Economics, Intelligence, and National Security."

Elizabeth Peek is a writer and columnist for The Fiscal Times, an online bipartisan policy journal, covering politics, finance, and economics. In prior years she was the lead business columnist for the New York Sun, and contributing editor to the New York Post, the Huffington Post, The Motley Fool, the Wall Street Journal, and Women on the Web, as well as to numerous magazines. She is a frequent guest on Bloomberg TV shows, CBS, Fox, and CNBC.
One of the first women partners of a major bracket Wall Street firm, she moved on to Wertheim & Company where she was one of the top three oilfield analysts ranked by Institutional Investor Magazine. She became Associate Director of Research, Head of International Research, and director of the firm's equity business in Tokyo, and then a General Partner and then a Managing Director of Wertheim Schroder after the two companies merged.
She graduated with honors in economics from Wellesley College and is a certified CFA.

Location: Society of Illustrators, 128 E 63rd St (between Park and Lexington), New York, NY 10065.
Timing: Registration starts at 5:30 pm, Speaker presentation starts at 6 pm. Fee: $50/person. Payment at the door only. Cash or check. Full dinner, cash bar.
RSVP: Strongly recommended that you RSVP to ensure space at event. Call or Email Chapter President Jerry Goodwin at afiometro@gmail.com or 646-717-3776.

Friday, 2 November 2018, 10 am - 2 pm - Tysons, VA - AFIO National Winter Luncheon features Ambassador Prudence Bushnell and authors Gus Russo and Eric Dezenhall

First notice AFIO's Fall Luncheon Friday, 2 November 2018. Ambassador Prudence Bushnell, Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs, U.S. Ambassador to Kenya and Guatemala, and Dean of the Leadership and Management School at the Foreign Service Institute, will discuss Terrorism, Betrayal, and Resilience ― My Story of the 1998 U.S. Embassy Bombings

Authors Gus Russo and Eric Dezenhall will discuss Best of Enemies: The Last Great Spy Story of the Cold War Of this book, being released at the event, early reviewers have said: "... crucial for anyone who wants to understand espionage or the Cold War."― James Grady, author of Six Days of the Condor
"If John le Carré wrote nonfiction and was a great reporter, BEST OF ENEMIES would be the result."―Laurence Leamer, author
"... how an American CIA agent and a Russian KGB agent wound up on the same side. You have to read it to believe it."―Tom Brokaw
Former KGB Officer Gennady Vasilenko, and Michelle "Mox" Platt, daughter of the late CIA Operations Officer Jack Platt, will be in attendance.

Badge pick-up starts at 10 a.m. First speaker is Ambassador Bushnell, at 11 a.m. Gus Russo and Eric Dezenhall speak at 1 p.m.

Register here to ensure a seat. Event Location: DoubleTree-Hilton, Tysons Corner, VA [formerly the Crowne Plaza], at 1960 Chain Bridge Rd, McLean, VA 22102. Directions are here.


Monday, 3 December 2018, 5:30 - 8 pm - New York, NY - AFIO NY Metro Chapter hosts Jen Easterly on "Cyber Attacks, Terrorism, and other Threats to National Security."

Jen Easterly is currently a Managing Director of Morgan Stanley, having joined the firm after 26 years of U.S. government service in national security, military intelligence, and cyber operations. Previously, Jen served on the National Security Council as Special Assistant to the President and Senior Director for Counterterrorism where she led the development of U.S. counterterrorism policy and strategy.
Prior to that, she was the Deputy for Counterterrorism at the NSA, a position she assumed following retirement from the US Army, where her service included command and staff assignments in the intelligence and cyber fields, as well as tours of duty in Haiti, Bosnia, Kosovo, Iraq, and Afghanistan.
A graduate of West Point, she holds a Master's degree in Politics, Philosophy, and Economics from the University of Oxford where she studied as a Rhodes Scholar. A member of the Council on Foreign Relations and a French-American Foundation Young Leader, Jen is the recipient of the Council on Foreign Relations International Affairs Fellowship, the George S. Franklin Fellowship, and the Director, National Security Agency Fellowship. She also serves on the Board of Trustees of the Morgan Stanley Foundation.

Location: Society of Illustrators, 128 E 63rd St (between Park and Lexington), New York, NY 10065.
Timing: Registration starts at 5:30 pm, Speaker presentation starts at 6 pm.
Fee: $50/person. Payment at the door only. Cash or check. Full dinner, cash bar.
RSVP: Strongly recommended that you RSVP to ensure space at event. Call or Email Chapter President Jerry Goodwin at afiometro@gmail.com or 646-717-3776.


Other Upcoming Events from Advertisers, Corporate Sponsors, and Others'

Wednesday, 18 July 2018, noon - 1:30pm - Washington, DC - Joint Dacor-Bacon/DIAA Forum features RAdm Paul Becker USN on "How Temperament, Tone, and Tenacity are Critical to Military Success."

Rear Admiral Paul Becker, (USN, Ret) will discuss how the fundamentals of Temperament, Tone, and Tenacity are critical to success in the military and beyond.
Paul Becker served 30 years as a Naval Intelligence Officer. His service includes Director of Intelligence (J2) for the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Pacific Command in Hawaii, the International Security Assistance Force Joint Command in Afghanistan, command of Central Command's Joint Intelligence Center and Assistant Naval Attaché to France. He led the Presidential Transition's Intelligence Community Landing team in 2016 which provided policy input, strategic guidance, and operational advice to new Administration cabinet secretaries. Since retiring from active duty Paul has founded the Becker T3 Group, LLC. Becker T3 is a consultancy, keynote speaker, and executive coaching service focused on global risk management, business intelligence, cyber operations and organizational leadership. Paul holds an MPA from Harvard's Kennedy School of Government and a BS from the U.S. Naval Academy. He is also a Senior Fellow with the Center for Naval Analyses and is a Professor of Practice at the University of Virginia's Batten School of Leadership and Public Policy.
Remarks are Off the Record and not for attribution.
Location: Dacor Bacon House, 1801 F St NW, Washington, DC 20006.
Registration: via email at programs@dacorbacon.org or call (202) 682-0500 ext. 20 or 11. When registering for the joint forum identify yourself as being associated with DIAA.
Cost: $25 at door. You may pay with cash, check, or credit card. No online payment option. Cancellation must be received by 9 am NLT Tuesday 17 July or full cost of the event will be charged. You are responsible for paying for self and your guests who are no-shows or who cancel late. Please respect our rules on this matter.
TIMING: Doors open at 11:30; Reception Noon - 12:30; Lunch 12:30 - 1:05; Remarks and Q&A 1:10. PARKING: DACOR Bacon House has no parking. Limited street parking available on surrounding streets or at meters. Meters are routinely checked Monday through Saturday 7am until 10 pm so payment and timing crucial to avoid ticketing. Pay for street parking by credit card with Parkmobile. Each meter has a Parkmobile sticker with a zone number. Either use the Parkmobile App on your smartphone (app must be downloaded) or call number on sticker to pay via credit card. You can also add time to your meter through Parkmobile. GARAGES: Two parking garages are conveniently located next door to Dacor-Bacon House. They are located on either side of 18th St between F St and G St - look for Colonial Parking sign. Additional parking garages are at: Courtyard Marriott at 515 20th St NW; Colonial Parking at 1775 I St NW; and George Washington University at 2028 G St NW.
METRO: Dacor is four blocks from the 18th Street exit of Farragut West Station on the Blue and Orange lines. The K Street exit of the Farragut North Station on the Red line is two blocks further.
Google Map: https://dacorbacon.org/live/facilities/directions/

Tuesday, 14 August 2018, 1-4pm - Washington, DC - Meet A Spy: Sandy Grimes at the International Spy Museum

Sandy Grimes is a longtime veteran of the CIA's clandestine service who helped capture Aldrich Ames, the CIA officer turned traitor. Ms. Grimes highlights the back story and capture of Ames in Circle of Treason, the first account written by CIA agents who were key members of the CIA team that conducted the intense Ames Mole Hunt. Sandra Grimes and fellow author and former CIA colleague Jeanne Vertefeuille were two of the five principals of the CIA team tasked with hunting one of their own and were directly responsible for identifying Ames as the mole, leading to his arrest and conviction.
There is no charge for this event.
Visit www.spymuseum.org.

Thursday, 23 August 2018, 6:30pm - Washington, DC - Spies on Screen: Mata Hari, Agent H21 - Film at the International Spy Museum

World War I Paris offered the legendary Mata Hari some unique opportunities. This 1964 film featuring Jeanne Moreau and Jean-Louis Trintignant imagines how the famous dancer used her charm and seductive powers to spy for Germany and bankroll a glamorous life. But when she falls in love, her life as a spy loses its luster. This spy romance includes invisible ink, quick escapes, and a doomed love - perfect film fare for a summer evening. Along with the evening's screening of Mata Hari, H21, enjoy popcorn and sparkling French soda almost as tasty as Jeanne Moreau's Mata Hari. In French with English subtitles; screening at the Spy Museum. Co-sponsored by the Alliance Française de Washington.
Tickets for the general public: $10 per person; tickets for Spy Museum members: $8 per person. Visit www.spymuseum.org.

17 October 2018 - Laurel, MD - NCMF General Membership Meeting & Annual Symposium - Hold the date.

The National Cryptologic Museum Foundation hosts their General Membership Meeting and Annual Symposium. More details to follow later in the year.

Registration is $25 for NCMF members and $50 for guests (includes complimentary one-year NCMF membership).
Deadline to register has not been announced. Additional details at www.cryptologicfoundation.org.
Event location likely to be: The Kossiakoff Center, Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory.

Wednesday, 28 November 2018, 6 - 10:30 pm - Washington, DC - International Spy Museum's Annual "William H. Webster Distinguished Service Award Dinner" honoring Adm McRaven

For your calendar. A special evening to illuminate the critical role of individuals and organizations serving the Intelligence Community, and to raise funds in support of the International Spy Museum.

The William H. Webster Distinguished Service Award Dinner will take place at The Ritz Carlton Hotel. More than 600 attendees are anticipated and will recognize the men and women who have served in the field of National Security with integrity and distinction. This annual tribute dinner is given by the International Spy Museum to an individual who has embodied the values of Judge William H. Webster. This year's honoree is a patriot for whom love of country has been his guiding principle: Admiral William H. McRaven, former US Special Operations Commander, former Joint Special Operations Commander, and Chancellor of The University of Texas System.
Schedule: 6 pm - VIP Reception; 6:30 pm - Cocktail Reception; 7:30 - 9 pm - Dinner & Awards; 9 - 10:30 pm - Dessert Reception.
Location: The Ritz-Carlton Hotel, 1150 22nd St NW, Washington, DC 20037. **Please note: this event is closed to Media**
Tickets Available Now: Prices range from $100,000 to a single seat for $495. Funds raised at this tribute dinner will support artifact preservation, educational programming, research, exhibits, and accessibility programs for underserved communities at the International Spy Museum. To purchase tickets now, do so here. To learn more about this annual dinner, it is available here.

Wednesday, 5 December 2018 - Annapolis Junction, MD - 18th Annual NCMF Pearl Harbor Program

Join the National Cryptologic Foundation on 5 December for their 18th Annual Pearl Harbor Memorial Program. Speaker and topic TBA.
When: 10-11:30 am, followed by lunch.
Cost: $25 for NCMF members, $50 for guests (complimentary one-year NCMF membership included with guest purchase).
Where: CACI Inc., Maryland Conference Center, 2720 Technology Drive, Annapolis Junction, MD 20755
RSVP or More Info: Registration links will be provided later in year. A check may be mailed to NCMF, PO Box 1682, Ft. Meade, MD 20755. For further details, call NCMF office at 301-688-5436


Gift Suggestions:

AFIO's Guide to the Study of IntelligenceAFIO's 788-page Guide to the Study of Intelligence. Peter C. Oleson, Editor, also makes a good gift. View authors and table of contents here.

Perfect for professors, students, those considering careers in intelligence, and current/former officers seeking to see what changes are taking place across a wide spectrum of intelligence disciplines.

AFIO's Guide to the Study of Intelligence helps instructors teach about the large variety of subjects that make up the field of intelligence. This includes secondary school teachers of American History, Civics, or current events and undergraduate and graduate professors of History, Political Science, International Relations, Security Studies, and related topics, especially those with no or limited professional experience in the field. Even those who are former practitioners are likely to have only a limited knowledge of the very broad field of intelligence, as most spend their careers in one or two agencies at most and may have focused only on collection or analysis of intelligence or support to those activities.

For a printed, bound copy, it is $95 which includes Fedex shipping to a CONUS (US-based) address.
To order for shipment to a US-based CONUS address, use this online form,

To order multiple copies or for purchases going to AK, HI, other US territories, or other countries call our office at 703-790-0320 or send email to afio@afio.com to hear of shipment fees.

Order the Guide from the AFIO's store at this link.

...ORDER HERE from AFIO.

The Guide is also available directly from Amazon at this link.

MousepadAFIO's 2017 Intelligence Community Mousepads are a great looking addition to your desk...or as a gift for others.
Made in USA. Click image for larger view.

These 2017 mousepads have full color seals of all 18 members of the US Intelligence Community on this 8" round, slick surface, nonskid, rubber-backed mouse pad with a darker navy background, brighter, updated seals. Also used, by some, as swanky coasters. Price still only $20.00 for 2 pads [includes shipping to US address. Foreign shipments - we will contact you with quote.] Order NEW MOUSEPADS here.

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