Weekly Intelligence Notes #16-01
23 April 2001

WIN 16-01 dated 23 April 2001

WINs are produced by Editor Roy Jonkers for AFIO members and WIN subscribers, for educational purposes. Associate editors Don Harvey and John Macartney also contribute articles to the WINs.

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IMPACT OF EP-3 LOSS ON US ASIAN ALLIES. America's allies in Asia are hastily changing computer codes and electronic identification codes in the wake of the detention of the US Navy's most important electronic intelligence (ELINT)-gathering aircraft by the Chinese authorities on Hainan Island. The US is not the only country that flies electronic surveillance missions. The article goes on to say that Japan also operates EP-3's and Taiwan too operates surveillance aircraft in the Sea of Japan and the East China Sea. For the past week, these missions have been escorted by fighters. Also, China operates it's own electronic surveillance aircraft (9 converted Russian An-12 transports dubbed Y-8x's by the US) along the coasts of Vietnam, Malaysia, Taiwan, South Korea and Japan. (Macartney)

INFANTRYMAN PORTABLE SURVEILLANCE UAV. American soldiers may soon get new power to see beyond hills, buildings and trees - thanks to a 4-1/2 pound, unmanned plane that can be stored in a backpack and is designed to send live images of enemy positions. The Marines Corps Warfighting Lab and Naval Research Lab soon will award a contract to build 40 miniature planes that can be stored in a soldier's backpack, assembled in the field of battle, and sent on one-hour missions to beam back live pictures of enemy positions. (Macartney)

CONVICTED SPIES LOSE SUPREME COURT APPEAL -- Squillacote, a former Pentagon lawyer, and Stand, a former labor union representative, were convicted in 1998 of spying against the US. Squillacote was sentenced to nearly 22 years in prison, Stand to more than 17. The two were accused of an espionage conspiracy dating back decades. Govt accounts of the case read like a script for a spy movie, including an alleged love affair between Squillacote and a former East German spy master, and coded secrets allegedly hidden inside hollow toys. At times, the couple wanted to provide US secrets to the former East Germany, the former Soviet Union, Russia and South Africa, the government claimed. The two Marxists are almost unique among post WWII American spies in that they were motivated by ideology. 
    The case had some interesting legal implications and may be read as a challenge to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) adopted in 1978. The FISA established a secret court to provide authorization for electronic surveillance and clandestine physical search of U.S. persons who are suspected of being foreign agents. The use of this law was challenged in a petition filed last year on behalf of Theresa M. Squillacote and Kurt A. Stand, the abovementioned married couple who were convicted in 1998 of conspiring to commit espionage on behalf of East Germany, the Soviet Union, Russia, and South Africa. 
    In the course of their investigation of Squillacote and Stand, the FBI requested and received 20 separate FISA authorizations for surveillance that lasted 550 consecutive days. Their conviction was based almost exclusively on evidence collected in this counterintelligence mode. Attorneys for Squillacote and Stand were never permitted to see the underlying documentation that the government used to justify the surveillance, not even on a classified basis. 
    The attorneys argued that improper use was made of intercepted conversations with Squillacote's psychotherapist, and that the government incorrectly implied that transmission of information that was already in the public domain could be a violation of the Espionage Act. If true, the latter indeed would be, as the attorneys maintained, "a troubling and unjustified expansion of the espionage law." 
    Government attorneys insisted that all required procedures were followed at all times, and that access to the FISA applications by the defendants' attorneys was correctly denied on national security grounds. They noted further that the investigation and prosecution of Squillacote and Stand survived multiple layers of judicial review and that their conviction was upheld on appeal. The Petition was denied by the Supreme Court on April 16, 2001. (Macartney/Jonkers) (http://www.fas.org/irp/ops/ci/squill/index.html //23 April 01)
( http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/national/AP-Scotus-Spies.html)



Foreign Intelligence, But Not Foreign Languages. A few years ago, an astute Chairman of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, Senator Boren of Oklahoma, determined that the US national security suffered because Americans, especially those working for the government, could not understand foreign developments well due to lack of language proficiency. He succeeded in establishing a substantial program of federal grants to Americans endeavoring to learn a foreign language at the graduate as well as undergraduate level. His efforts did not solve the problem, according to what intelligence and law enforcement officials now describe as the undermining of national security by the increasingly dire lack of foreign language expertise. Reasons for the situation are myriad -- recent immigrants lack good English, reductions in schools' foreign language studies (never a strong point) to concentrate on reading and math, fragmentation of the security threats, layoffs in government, growth of English as the world's lingua franca, etc. 
    American colleges and universities graduated only nine students who majored in Arabic last year, only a handful majored in Korean, and only about 140 graduated with degrees in Chinese. Only 8.2 percent of American college students enroll in foreign language courses -- nearly all in Spanish, French and German; the figure has remained essentially unchanged since 1976 while the demand for language speakers has ballooned. For example, the Soviet Union break-up led to a puzzle of 15 official languages, from Armenian to Ukrainian to Kazak to Belarussian, and more than 100 ethnic enclaves. The director of the National Security Education Program which offers grants to promote the study of foreign languages and cultures has said that in the last decade, the linguistic shortfalls have gone from an episodic to a chronic problem. 
    The provost of the Defense Language Training Institute notes that the languages the military considers the most critical are not those generally taught in colleges. He said that while the largest number of enrollments in the civilian schools is Spanish, the military number one enrollment was in Arabic. Defense has more students learning Arabic, Chinese, Korean and Russian than it does Spanish. His institute graduated 109 Farsi students last year, but he could not even find civilian college Farsi graduate figures. 
    Anecdotal evidence of cock-ups in the intelligence and law enforcement communities due to lack of timely interpretation or translation abounds. A cynical soul would predict that the language problem, just like the inadequate processing problem, will plague the intelligence community for the foreseeable future. (Harvey) ( NY Times 16 Apr '01, p. 1 /// D. J. Schemo)

BIOMETRICS MAY HELP SECURE PENTAGON COMPUTERS AND CLASSIFIED FACILITIES. The Defense Department has set up its first biometrics testing laboratory to scientifically scrutinize hundreds of commercial products that scan unique physical traits - such as eye, finger or voice - to prove a person's identity (Macartney) http://www.nwfusion.com/news/2001/0319biometrics.html



IDENTITY THEFT THREATENS FEDERAL EMPLOYEES- -Federal employees run the risk of having their identity stolen when they sell, throw away or donate their old computers without properly deleting personal files, NASA's inspector general warned Friday. Thieves can even retrieve files that appear to be deleted, the IG said. Unless you take the proper precautions, getting rid of your home computer might be your personal introduction to one of the fastest growing crimes in America identity theft, the IG's alert said. It is possible for a thief to open credit card accounts, make purchases, take out loans or order false checks and ATM cards in their victim's name, the alert said (NOTE -- See LETTERS below).(Levine 04/23) (http://www.govexec.com/dailyfed/0401/042301j1.htm)

BRITISH DEFENSE MINISTRY BUGGED-- Britain's Defense Ministry on Monday refused to confirm or deny press reports which said that some 30 electronic listening devices had been discovered at ministry headquarters. "It is not our policy to comment on security," a ministry spokeswoman said. She also refused to comment on a report by the Daily Telegraph that implicated French firms in the bugging scandal, alleging that the bugs were planted for the purpose of industrial espionage. The bugs were discovered during a rearrangement of the office in the center of London, according to information published by the Sunday Times.(Levine 04/23)



JAMES BAMFORD, "BODY OF SECRETS: ANATOMY OF THE ULTRASECRET NSA, Doubleday, April 2001. NMIA's Potomac Chapter is hosting author James Bamford on Thursday, April 26, 6:30 to 8:45pm, at the new offices of Anser, in Shirlington, 2900 South Quincy Street, Arlington. Copies of "Body of Secrets" will be available on its first day of sale. $10; parking, food, refreshments. For reservations, call (703) 921-1800, visit website
<http://www.intelweb.org/potomac>, or email <jtm@capu.net>.

ANNE CAHN, "KILLING DETENTE: THE RIGHT ATTACKS THE CIA," Penn State Press, 1998. This is about the A-Team/B-Team episode of 1976 when President Ford and DCI George Bush, under pressure from GOP conservatives, invited a "B Team" of noted university professors and other non-government Soviet scholars in to review the same threat data that the CIA (the A Team) was using and develop a competing analysis. The professors were handpicked "hardliners" led by Harvard historian Richard Pipes, and their analysis was (as intended) much more hawkish than that of the CIA's. Subsequently, the CIA adopted much of the professors' hard-line views of the "evil empire."
    The thesis of this book by AU Scholar-in-Residence, Anne Cahn, is that the B-Team's more dire threat analysis led directly to the "Reagan arms build" up [which began, lest we forget, during the last year and a half of the Carter administration --jdmac] and thus caused tens of billions of dollars in unnecessary US defense spending. This is an interesting book about an important episode in intelligence history. [Although, it may attribute too much influence to intelligence threat assessments. US defense spending proceeds, unfortunately, not from threats but from a host of domestic political considerations, lobbying by defense contractors (and associated labor unions), influence from within the military services, and especially pressure from local communities with defense plants and their representatives in Congress. . As a result, both Carter and Reagan campaigned in 1980 by saying they would do more to rebuild US defenses. In short pressures for defense spending frequently have precious little to do with external threats, real or imagined, or to intelligence assessments of those threats -- although as former intelligence offices we would prefer it were otherwise.] (Macartney)

DDCI JOHN McLAUGHLIN ON-LINE. Post reporter Vernon Loeb, who hosts a bi-monthly on-line Q&A session, had the DDCI as his guest on April 1st. Among other things, Mr McLaughlin said that the CIA now has an "ombudsman" who acts as a sort of devil's advocate against politicization -- to ensure analysts "tell it like it is."

THREE BOOKS IN BRIEF:  DARK EAGLE: A Novel of Benedict Arnold and The American Revolution by John Ensor Harr is coming out in paperback by Penguin, 0-14-100178-X, $14.00. Publisher blurb has "...meticulously researched, a fictionalized story of Arnold's career, his heroism, his military exploits, and his May-September romance with Peggy Shippen, who became his wife and partner in treason."

BAY OF PIGS: An Oral History of Brigade 2506 by Victor Andres Triay, 0-8130-2090-5, University of Florida Press, $24.95. Story of the Bay of Pigs invasion, told in the words of the idealistic participants who came together in April 1961 to overthrow Castro. Combines oral history and traditional narrative form, giving a human dimension to this moment in the Cold War.

LIVING WELL IN THE AGE OF GLOBAL WARMING by Paul and Hazel Delcourt, PhDs, CGPC, $16.95 paperback, 1-890132-87-X. With many discussions of the national security implications of global warming and environmental havoc, these two eco-futurists examine a slightly different aspect of the changing weather patterns, temperature zones, storm tracks, and other factors and suggest the "ten best strategies" for surviving the social upheaval they predict will occur as a result of significant climatic change.



FORMER RC-135 RECONNAISSANCE PILOT Robert Hopkins provides an insider's perspective on foreign and US fighter reactions to reconnaissance missions along national perimeters. He writes:

... For many years I was an RC-135 aircraft  commander and flew PARPRO missions around the world. In many  cases we were escorted by a variety of interceptors from nations  ranging from the USSR to Israel. These visits broke the monotony  and were usually quite enjoyable -- indeed, some of the best formation  flying I have ever had was flying the RC-135S COBRA BALL  while escorted by a Soviet Tu-16 BADGER for well over three hours,  including a trip to a tanker with a terrified boom operator. 
    Conversely, some interceptor pilots were aggressive to the point of dangerous,  usually trying to "shoo" us away or to establish their pilot bona fides.  The North Koreans and Vietnamese were automatic "get out of town"  intercepts because of their outright hostility to the United States and  the highly unpredictable nature of their controllers. The Israelis were  indignant at having us fly along their borders, and were among the  most dangerous in encouraging us to leave. 
    The US Navy has a real tradition of knowing how to shadow visitors,  as a number of my colleagues in the F-4 and F-14 community revel in  their tales of how close, how long, and how risky they could get.  I mention this as a way of saying that all of the possible causes of  collision between the EP-3 and the F-8 are common environments in  the escort world. A high-speed pass from behind and above (or  below) at near Mach is extremely routine and is called "thumping." As  the fighter passes the heavy intruder, the fighter pulls up abruptly and  the shock wave beats the bigger airplane pretty substantially. 
    Another routine form of annoyance is the fighter pulling in front of an  engine (average pilots would go for the outboards, hot dogs would  go for the inboards) and stroke their afterburner in an effort to cause  cavitation of our engine forcing us to leave the area, or they would  simply slow down to a point where we would leave to avoid  ramming them from behind. As you can well imagine, a fighter has a  tough time doing this as it becomes increasingly unstable at high  angles of attack and slow speeds, whereas the heavy airplane is fairly  stable. 
    We have learned more about the recent collision since the aircrew was  returned. According to the Navy EP-3 pilot, the Chinese F-8 had previously  made two aggressive passes below and to the left of the EP-3, and  the third was too close. Part of the interceptor's goal is to be as  close as possible, but it doesn't absolve the interceptor pilot of the  responsibility to be safe. [ RobertSHopkins@eaton.com]

STOLEN WALLETS -- Bill York writes:

We've all heard horror stories about fraud that's committed using your name, address, SS#, credit, etc. Unfortunately I have first-hand knowledge, because my wallet was stolen last month and within a week the thieve(s) ordered an expensive monthly cell phone package, applied for a VISA credit card, had a credit line approved to buy a Gateway computer, received a PIN number from DMV to change my driving record information on-line, more. But here's some critical information to limit the damage in case this happens to you or someone you know. As everyone always advises, cancel your credit cards immediately, but the key is having the toll free numbers and your card numbers handy so you know whom to call. Keep those where you can find them easily (having to hunt for them is additional I remember losing a MC and until I got the toll free number from information, etc., I was a wreck. File a police report immediately in the jurisdiction where it was stolen, this proves to credit providers you were diligent, and is a first step toward an investigation (if there ever is one).

But here's what is perhaps most important: I never ever thought to do this -- Call the Three national credit reporting Organizations immediately to place a fraud alert on your name and SS#. I had never heard of doing that until advised by a bank that called to tell me an application for credit was made over the Internet in my name. The alert means any company that checks your credit knows your information was stolen and By the time I was advised to do this - almost 2 weeks after The Theft - all the damage had been done (there are records of all the credit checks initiated by the thieves' purchases, none of which I knew about before placing the alert). Since then, no additional damage has been done, and the thieves threw my wallet away this weekend (someone turned it in). It seems to have stopped them in their tracks. The Credit Organization numbers are:

Equifax 1-800 525-6285

Experian (formerly TRW) 1-800-301-7195

Trans Union 1-800-680-7289

Social Security Administration also has a fraud line at 1-800-269-0271

We pass along jokes, we pass along just about everything....do. Think about passing this information along .... it could help someone else. (Bill York)

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