Weekly Intelligence Notes #20-01
21 May 2001

WIN #20 dated 21 May 2001

WINs are commentaries on intelligence-related events based on open sources, produced and edited by Roy Jonkers for AFIO members and subscribers. Associate editors Don Harvey and John Macartney contribute articles. WINs are protected by copyright laws.

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UNMANNED AIRCRAFT (UAV) INTELLIGENCE COLLECTION -- A number of press items have reported on-going changes in the US Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) world. A summary of several includes:

    ++ The first trans-Pacific flight by a UAV [or drone or unmanned aircraft -- in simpler days, drone seemed to suffice] was made in late April by a Global Hawk, completing the Edwards Air Force Base (in California) to an Australian Air Force Base flight 14 minutes ahead of schedule. The drone followed a preprogrammed route for the impressive 8,600 mile flight. Described as an awkward-looking plane resembling a killer whale, thanks to a bulbous nose that hides an antenna four feet in diameter, Global Hawk has wings longer than a Boeing 737's and carries 15,000 pounds of fuel for a flight made largely at 65,000 feet.

    ++ In April, the first flights of the Air Force RQ-1B Predator UAVs from Macedonia's Petrovec airport boosted NATO's surveillance efforts in the southern Balkans. Prior to the Predators arrival, the only drones supporting NATO's attempts to close the Kosovo-Macedonia border to Albanian insurgents were German short-range UAVs which were scheduled to be relieved by French drones. The RQ-1B version of the Predator has been upgraded with a turbocharged engine, wings equipped for de-icing (which should enable operations in the colder months), new radios and IFF equipment.

    ++ Regional CinCs have been pressing the Navy to increase the EP-3E fleet from 11 (practically 10 since one is still on Hainan) to 16 but the Navy cited lack of funding to support the increase. In a compromise, Congress plans to add money to buy three more EP-3Es. One 'insider" is quoted to say, "It has been their most valuable intelligence collection asset for some time."

    ++ Over the past decade, Defense has invested over $3 billion in UAV development, procurement, and operations, and expects to invest at least another $4 billion in the coming decade.

    ++ Close advisers to the SECDEF recently requested a briefing on how to speed up the fielding of advanced radar imaging and other intelligence technologies. The new DOD leaders could opt to recommend increase the pace of production for the Global Hawk reconnaissance drone or another UAV to carry various emerging sensor technologies sooner than currently planned. Secretary Rumsfeld's sweeping review of defense priorities and strategies is said to be exploring the acceleration of at least four technologies for ISR: Global Hawk, an unmanned concept plane called the Sensor Craft, a sophisticated radar imaging sensor, and a future manned and multi-mission ISR platform.

The current tactical and strategic interest in UAVs underlines anew the error of the at-least-thirty-year refusal of the military, especially the rated aviators, to accept the obvious potential of the UAV in an ISR role. (Harvey)
(Defense Information and Electronics Report 13 Apr '01, p. 12; Aerospace Daily 25 Apr '01; Wash Times 6 Apr '01 by Gertz and Scarborough; Jane's Defence Weekly 25 Apr'01 by Tim Ripley; AP 23 Apr '01)


FISA ACTIVITY REACHED ALL-TIME HIGH IN 2000 -- The secretive Court established by the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) of 1978 was busier than ever last year, approving an all-time high of 1012 government applications for electronic surveillance or physical search of suspected foreign intelligence agents in the United States. The Justice Department disclosed the contents of its calendar year 2000 annual report to Congress today in response to a request under the Freedom of Information Act. The report was filed on April 27.
            The FISA Court has been controversial to some because, with one exception, it has never rejected a government application for surveillance, raising questions about the quality of the Court's review. Justice Department officials say that the high approval rate simply reflects their rigorous preparation of the application prior to submission to the Court. They say that defective applications, like that in the Wen Ho Lee case, are turned back before they ever reach the Court.
            Another controversial aspect derives from the fact that, unlike ordinary criminal cases involving law enforcement wiretaps, no defendant in a FISA-based prosecution has ever been able to view the application for surveillance and to meaningfully challenge its legality. In the absence of adversarial review, courts depend exclusively on the prosecution's version of events.
            The government submitted a record 1005 requests for surveillance or physical search in calendar year 2000. Of those, 1003 were approved before the end of the year. (The remaining two were approved in January 2001.) Nine requests submitted in 1999 were also approved in 2000, for a grand total of 1012 approved in 2000. (The previous high was 880 authorizations granted in 1999.) One request was modified but none was denied.
    The latest FISA report to Congress is not yet available online. But several previous annual reports are posted here: http://www.usdoj.gov/04foia/readingrooms/oipr_records.htm (Jonkers)


MILITARY CYBER DEFENSE PLANNING -- The Defense Department (OSD) later this summer plans to issue guidelines that the Army, Navy, Air Force and Marines will need to follow to protect Web-based resources from cyber attacks. The Defense Department has instructed the Services that computer network defense will be mandatory. It will propose guidelines on use of firewall, intrusion-detection and anti-virus technologies that it wants deployed across its sprawling global networks that include three million users at 1,500 locations.(http://www.nwfusion.com/archive/2001/120659_05-14-2001.html)(Levine)

CYBERNET MANIPULATOR GETS JAIL TERM -- Computer security researcher and former FBI informant Max Butler aka 'Max Vision' was sentenced Monday to 18 months in prison for launching an Internet worm that crawled through hundreds of military and defense contractor computers over a few days in 1998. In handing down the sentence, federal judge James Ware rejected defense attorney Jennifer Granick's argument that the Air Force, and other victims of the worm, improperly calculated their financial losses from the hack. The judge also declined to give Butler credit for his brief stint as an undercover FBI informant, during which he infiltrated a gang of hackers that had penetrated 3Com's corporate phone network.
(Levine 22 May) (Jonkers)


FRENCH RESISTANCE ON CABLE TV 28 May -- Renee Fisher, a member of the French Resistance during World War II, will be featured on Tampa's Educational Cable Consortium program "Weekly Edition" hosted by Julie Williamson. The first showing will be on Memorial Day, 28 May at 7:00 PM (1900 hrs) on Channel 18 (Time Warner) and Channel 21 (Explorer Channel within City of Tampa). The program will be shown eight other times during that week.
        Renee is a member of AFIO's Florida Suncoast Chapter and the Tampa Chapter of The Retired Officers Wives Club (TROWC). (Jonkers) 

STATE DEPARTMENT FOREIGN RELATIONS PUBLICATION RELEASED --The latest volume of the State Department's Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS) series, was released on April 21, 2001. It includes coverage of such events as the clandestine U.S. government support of Italian democratic parties during the 1960s, and covers the Arab-Israeli conflict in the aftermath of the Six Day War in 1967. It traces the Johnson Administration's role in Middle East diplomacy, notably including official U.S. efforts to discourage the Israeli nuclear weapons program. The new release does not encompass the 1967 war itself, which is the subject of another volume to be published next year. According to the FRUS editors, that long-awaited volume will include documentation on the Israeli attack on the USS Liberty on June 8, 1967.
        The covert action in Italy is one of a (presumably) limited number of U.S. covert actions that have now been officially acknowledged. According to the State Department publication, some163 covert actions were approved during the Kennedy administration, and 142 covert actions during the Johnson administration through February 1967.
        The newly disclosed documents on the covert action in Italy are available here: http://www.fas.org/sgp/advisory/state/italy.html.
The complete FRUS volume in which the documents appeared (FRUS, 1964-1968, vol. XII, Western Europe) is posted here: http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/frus/johnsonlb/xii/  (http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/frus/johnsonlb/xx/) (S. Aftergood/FAS) (Jonkers)

CREATION OF NIMA, Occasional Paper No. 9, Joint Military Intelligence College [JMIC], April 2001, by Lt.Col (ret) Anne Daugherty . According to reviewer Joe Mazzafro, this paper on the National Imagery & Mapping Agency is ".... a well written 23 page tract plus numerous interesting appendices that traces establishment of NIMA in 1996. While this study focuses on the Congress's role in birthing NIMA, the story cannot be told without reference to the equities of the Department of Defense and the Director of Central Intelligence. More importantly, Dr. Mills has done a terrific job explaining in clear terms how an enterprise of this scope has to move through and between the bureaucracies and processes of the executive branch, the IC and Congress to come about. Besides seeing how much time it took to get NIMA established, I was also struck how the process changed and shaped NIMA from what was originally envisioned." (Joe Mazzafro) (Macartney)

NEW NON-DISCLOSURE AGREEMENT PUBLISHED-- The "Classified Information Nondisclosure Agreement" that government employees and contractors must sign before they are granted access to classified information has been reissued in slightly revised form. The Agreement, designated Standard Form (SF) 312, was updated last year to include reference to 18 U.S.C. 1924 on "Unauthorized Removal and Retention of Classified Documents or Material" and to cite the current executive order on classification. See the Acrobat file: http://www.fas.org/sgp/isoo/new_sf312.pdf or check the SF 312 briefing booklet prepared by the Information Security Oversight Office at http://www.fas.org/sgp/isoo/sf312.html (S. Aftergood/FAS 2 May) (Jonkers)

NEW BOOK ON SECURITY CLEARANCE POLICY -- The Defense Personnel Security Research Center has published a new book on "Security Clearances and the Protection of National Security Information: Law and Procedures." The author is attorney Sheldon I. Cohen, who has specialized in this arcane area of the law. In a lengthy series of appendices, Mr. Cohen provides a selection of relevant agency documents, including a few items that are not readily available elsewhere. The full text is available online in an extremely unwieldy 17 MB PDF file through the Defense Technical Information Center. Search under Accession Number ADA388100 here: http://stinet.dtic.mil/str/tr4_fields.html.
Alternatively, the softbound volume may be purchased for $49 plus $3 shipping from Sheldon I. Cohen and Associates, 2009 N. Fourteenth Street, Suite 708, Arlington, Virginia 22201. (Jonkers)

STRATEGIC INVESTMENT PLAN FOR INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY ANALYSIS -- The Strategic Investment Plan for Intelligence Community Analysis is provided in two formats for user convenience. Adobe Acrobat� Format (2.97 Mb)   The Acrobat� version is downloadable for users with the free Acrobat� ReaderT on their system. It is a relatively large file (2.97 MB) and may take a few moments [on a cable, DSL or other fast connection] to 10 minutes or more [at 56K or lower] to download.   The benefit provided by this version is its printability, word search options, and portability.

HTML Version: The HTML version is a direct conversion from the PDF document using the BCL Magellan plugin for Acrobat�.   We have attempted to maintain the original format of the PDF document as closely as possible in the HTML version. The HTML version does not require a separate plugin, will take less time to download, and may be more accessible to users who browse with assistive technologies.  Navigation for the document is accomplished through the use of a navigation frame and its arrows at the top of the document.

Both versions can be found at:  http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/unclass_sip/index.html 
The PDF version can be accessed directly at:  http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/unclass_sip/UnclasSIP.pdf


LANGUAGE TRAINING -- Ernie O. comments on the recent WIN/NYT article on shortages of foreign linguists --

        "The problem addressed in this NYT story is not new but the magnitude seems greater. In early 1943 the US army initiated the Army Specialized Training Program (ASTP) . This was designed to prepare the Army with skills that were thought to be vital in the future. At this point the war was far from over and might possibly last many more years. Anyhow, selected GIs were sent off to as many as 200 different colleges to study engineering, medicine dentistry and foreign languages. The language program was extensive .
        At Indiana University where I was sent to study Turkish there were also programs in Greek, Romanian, Hungarian and Finnish. These were intensive language and area programs, four hours of oral/aural drill in the morning and four hours of Balkan and Turkish history, politics, sociology and anthropology in the afternoon with study periods and military stuff added. The ASTP programs ended about March 1944. The story made the rounds of the IU campus that the Soviets objected to troops being trained in areas the USSR considered its own preserve. I never found this documented. It is more likely that the planning for D-Day required the release of the ASTPers to beef up the infantry, for that is where most of the ex-ASTPers ended up, including me.
        After the war there was the feeling that the US was woefully short of expertise in language skills and related experience. The American Council of Learned Societies, with funding in many cases from the Department of Education, sponsored language and area programs in many Universities. I have no knowledge of extent of these programs overall but at Indiana which built on its ASTP experience there were more than 150 publications in the Ural-Altaic Series over the next two decades or so, consisting of grammars, readers etc in languages ranging from Azerbaijani Turkish to Kirghiz, Ostyak and Yurak.   So the current shortage in not a new problem, the problem is numbers.
        The Department of State, the military and CIA have their own language schools which could be beefed up and some students could be sponsored at civilian universities. Some hard figures are needed as well and decisions made on objectives, how many are needed with only a speaking ability (and perhaps limited reading) and at what level of fluency, and how many are needed with only a reading ability? In some languages there is a marked difference between the written and the spoken language and it seems that time is an important issue here. How long can a person be spared before he can be put to work? and a host of other considerations,
        The FBIS and JPRS were designed to monitor and provide translations of open source material. Do these need to be beefed up or reoriented? Do we need programs directed to native speakers with limited English to improve their English? Here, of course, security considerations may arise. We are in all cases talking money. If funds are not available the best planning is useless and whatever problems arise we will have to live with." (E.Oney)

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